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NETosis substantially contributes to the pathogenesis of myocarditis and drives cardiac inflammation, probably via MK, which promotes PMN trafficking and NETosis.
Studied levels of mucin 16 (CA125), adenosine deaminase and midkine as tumor markers in nonsmall cell lung cancer-associated malignant pleural effusion.
we show that MK can potentially be used as a surrogate biomarker for predicting DTC metastases when Tg is not suitable due to TgAb positivity.
Midkine expression is not significantly linked to metastatic disease in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
High midkine expression is associated with invasion and metastasis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
This study has demonstrated an important association between increased serum MK (midkine)levels and risk factors of atherosclerosis such as HT(Hypertension),increased total and LDL cholesterol.
Midkine can be considered as both a differentiating factor and a molecular-targeted therapy in odontogenic lesions
Positive expression of MK predicts poor prognosis in patients with resectable combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma.
The data of this study showed that the serum MK concentration in ASD patients is significantly higher than healthy controls.
MDK promoted gemcitabine resistance of biliary tract cancer through inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition via upregulating Notch1.
These results demonstrate that analysis of IHC expression patterns of MK and NANOG in pretreatment biopsy specimens during the work-up period can provide a more definitive prognosis prediction for each oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patient that can help clinicians to develop a more precise individual treatment modality.
Elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients suggest their involvement in this disease.
Urinary midkine may be an effective biological marker for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury.
suppression of midkine gene promoted the antitumoral effect of cisplatin on human gastric cell line AGS in vitro and in vivo via Notch signaling pathway.
Results revealed that ectopic overexpression of midkine in HCC cell lines with IGF-1R inhibition markedly rescued inhibition of HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. These data imply that inhibition of IGF-1R suppresses HCC growth and invasion via down-regulating midkine expression.
Midkine is involved in bowel inflammation in UC and lymph node metastasis in CRC, rendering midkine an attractive target for their treatment.
According to our results, serum MK has greater diagnostic value in diagnosing cancer, however, more reliable studies in larger cohort should be conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum MK.
Data suggest that mature KLK9 (kallikrein 9) is a glycosylated chymotrypsin-like enzyme with strong preference for tyrosine over phenylalanine at P1 cleavage position; substrate specificity of KLK9 appears to extend to KLK10 and midkine; enzyme activity is enhanced by Mg2+ and Ca2+, but is reversibly attenuated by Zn2+; KLK9 is inhibited in vitro by many naturally occurring or synthetic protease inhibitors.
this paper shows that measurement of serum levels of MK is helpful in confirming the diagnosis of Henoch-Schonlein purpura and predicting related nephritis in Chinese children
midkine may be a good inflammatory marker in renal transplant recipients as in other inflammatory diseases. Moreover, it seems that it is not affected by factors other than inflammation during the post-transplantation period.
leukocyte domiciled midkine mediates increased plasma levels of VEGFA relevant for upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase 1 and 3
Study demonstrates that regulation of astroglial responses to lipopolysaccharide administration are highly dependent on the levels of expression of pleiotrophin and midkine.
MDK functions in the ventral tegmental area to limit ethanol consumption and levels of CCL2
It may be involved in the regeneration of acinar cells in acute pancreatitis.
Analyses of the melanoma secretome and validation in clinical specimens showed that the heparin-binding factor midkine is a systemic inducer of neo-lymphangiogenesis that defines patient prognosis. This role of midkine was linked to a paracrine activation of the mTOR pathway in lymphatic endothelial cells.
MK limits amphetamine-induced striatal neuroinflammation
MK serves an indispensable role in the NFAT-regulated activation of CD4(+) T cells and Th1 cell differentiation.
Ethanol engages MDK (and ALK) signaling, which has important consequences for alcohol-induced neurotoxicity.
Mdk plays a crucial role in the early inflammation phase and during the development of cartilaginous callus in the fracture healing process.
MK-deficient mice produced higher amounts of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and EETs dominantly regulated blood pressure in these mice.
This study demonistrated that a differential regulation of specific behavioural responses to ethanol by midkine.
clonidine-induced analgesia was significantly enhanced in PTN-/- mice compared to MK-/- and WT+/+ mice in the tail-immersion test
MK did not lead to an inflammatory activation of neutrophils suggesting that it does not serve as classical proinflammatory cytokine.
midkine plays a critical role in cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling.
Midkine exerts a neuroprotective role against amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in striatum.
MK leads to a blockade of PAI-1, which is closely associated with the suppression of crescentic glomerulonephritis.
Soluble rhMDK, rmMDK and rhPTN were expressed at a high-level and the protein was purified by a one-step purification using heparin affinity chromatography. Activity of purified rhMDK and rhPTN was confirmed by a cell proliferation assay.
Findings indicate a critical role for the midkine-Notch2 signaling axis in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, which implicates new strategies to treat neuroblastoma.
This study concluded that MEK is essential for acquisition of gliogenic competence by radial progenitors and that levels of MEK activity regulate gliogenesis in the developing cortex.
Found that macrophages are the major source of midkine in the atherosclerotic neointima of in-stent restenosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
MK is able to maintain a proliferative PGC phenotype mediated by the suppression of DAZL in early germ cells
Data show that 9-cis-retinoic acid enhanced midkine gene expression, but not insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression, in cumulus-granulosa cells.
The expression of mdkb follows a daily rhythm, which is independent of the presence or absence of light.The spatial domain of mdkb expression within the inner nuclear layer expands during the night and contracts during the subjective day
Ectopic ubiquitous expression of the mdkb gene in early zebrafish embryos causes completely distinct effects on neural crest and floorplate development.
Results imply that Mdkb is required for the earliest steps of cell specification at the neural plate border in zebrafish.
These data reveal that Mdka and Mdkb are signaling factors present in the retinal stem cell niches in both embryonic and mature retinas, and that their cellular expression is actively modulated during retinal development and regeneration.
This gene encodes a member of a small family of secreted growth factors that binds heparin and responds to retinoic acid. The encoded protein promotes cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, in particular during tumorigenesis. This gene has been targeted as a therapeutic for a variety of different disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed.
, midgestation and kidney protein
, neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 2
, retinoic acid inducible factor
, retinoic acid-induced differentiation factor
, pleiotrophic factor-alpha-2
, pleiotrophic factor-alpha2
, retinoic acid-induced heparin-binding protein
, midkine b
, midkine-related growth factor b
, pleiotrophin 2