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These data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells.
Rac2 signaling axis is critical in the regulation of macrophage differentiation and lung fibrosis in vivo.
distinct modes of Rac-regulated mast cell exocytosis: Rac2-mediated calcium influx and Rac1-mediated membrane ruffling.
Rac2 to modulates the level of Rac1-dependent macrophage IL-1beta expression, which consequently determines extent of atherosclerotic calcification.
Rac1 and Rac2 have critical roles in skeletal metabolism.
Data indicate that cytosol-to-membrane translocation of the Nox regulatory subunit p47(phox) and the small GTPase Rac1/2 was increased in vessels from db/db mice compared with db/+ mice, an effect blunted by atorvastatin.
Rac2 GTPase is activated downstream of alpha4beta1 integrin and the MCSF receptor to control tumor growth, metastasis and macrophage differentiation.
Rac2-deficient animals have higher rates of mortality in pulmonary fibrosis.
the levels of beta-catenin were reduced and not able to prevent the negative effect of Rac2 on PLD2 activity
Data show that the Phospholipase D2 (PLD2)-GTPase Rac2 protein-protein interaction is sufficient for the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) function.
Deletion of Rac1 and Rac2 in osteoclasts causes severe osteopetrosis.
Using Rac mutants that are defective in their ability to activate NOX2, we show that Rac regulates a redox-mediated feedback loop that mediates directional migration of neutrophils.
loss of either Rac1 or Rac2 is sufficient to impair survival and growth of transformed MLL-AF9 leukemia
Rac2 is essential for NET formation via pathways involving ROS and NO.
We identified unique expression of asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), among others, in an invasive pre-B-cell line that produced leukemia in NOD-SCID mice
Data suggest that Rac could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of pulmonary inflammation.
Rac2 drives the physiological process of late chemotaxis, and has a dual (enhancing and inhibitory) effect on PLD2-induced chemotaxis.
LFA-1-induced stabilization of ARE-containing mRNAs in T cells is dependent on HuR, and occurs through the Vav-1, Rac1/2, MKK3 and p38MAPK signaling cascade
Rac2(-/-) osteoclasts showed a marked defect in chemotaxis toward a point source of CSF1, with a dramatic reduction in migratory rate.
Sbds is required for osteoclastogenesis by regulating monocyte migration via Rac2 and osteoclast differentiation signaling downstream of RANK.
We found both the rs229527 allele within C1QTNF6 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.12-1.33, pAllelic = 4.60 . 10-6) and the rs2284038 allele within RAC2 (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-0.19, pAllelic = 3.00 . 10-2) showed significant associations with Graves' Disease susceptibility.
miR-24-1*/let-7a*-ARP2/3 complex-RAC isoforms pathway may represent a novel pathogenic mechanism for Hirschsprung disease.
P38 MAPK, phosphorylated P38 MAPK, and RAC2 regulated in mutual feedback and negative feedback regulatory pathways, resulting in the radioresistance of G0 cells.
R665W and L845F be referred to as allomorphic rather than hypermorphic mutations of PLCG2 Rerouting of the transmembrane signals emanating from BCR and converging on PLCgamma2 through Rac in ibrutinib-resistant CLL cells may provide novel drug treatment strategies to overcome ibrutinib resistance mediated by PLCG2 mutations or to prevent its development in ibrutinib-treated CLL patients.
Study showed that RhoA/Rac2 participate in hepatocellular tumorigenesis through their upregulation by AFAP1-AS1.
RAC1/RAC2 and SFK are proximal and essential for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation in NK cell-mediated direct cytotoxicity against Cryptococcus neoformans.
RAC2 specifically interacted with a set of mitochondrial proteins.
our present analysis reinforces the involvement in ACT of the regulatory NADPH oxidase subunit RAC2 gene variant rs13058338 and, to a lesser extent of the CYBA gene variant rs4673.
homozygous loss-of-function RAC2 mutation in 2 patients with early-onset and progressive hypogammaglobulinemia(novel homozygous nonsense mutation in codon 56 (W56X)of RAC2 gene)
p47(phox) and Rac2 accumulate only transiently at the phagosome at the onset of NADPH activity and detach from the phagosome before the end of reactive oxygen species production.
These studies imply functional importance of iNOS and its interaction with Rac2 in pathogen killing by the neutrophils.
findings indicate that a chemokine-controlled pathway, consisting of Galphai2, ELMO1/Dock180, Rac1 and Rac2, regulates the actin cytoskeleton during breast cancer metastasis
Mutations in hematopoiesis-specific Rho GTPases Rac2 and RhoH lead to a wide range of human blood disorders. (Review)
study identified several missense mutations for RAC1 and RAC2, with some of the mutant proteins, including RAC1(P29S), RAC1(C157Y), RAC2(P29L), and RAC2(P29Q), being found to be activated and transforming; activating mutations of RAC GTPases were thus found in a wide variety of cancers at a low frequency
This variant reduced binding of the NCF2 gene product p67(phox) to RAC2. This study found a novel genetic association of RAC2 with Crohn's disease (CD) and replicated the previously reported association of NCF4 with ileal CD.
The mRNA and protein levels of Rac1 and Rac2 are elevated following exposure of endothelial progenitor cells to the chemokine SDF-1alpha.
Rac2 GTPase alters mitochondrial membrane potential and electron flow through the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III, generating high levels of reactive oxygen species in chronic-phase CML stem cells and primitive leukemia progenitor cells.
data reinforce recent evidences that susceptibility alleles/haplotypes are shared among multiple autoimmune disorders and support a causal role for RAC2 variants in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
CNF1 modified Rac2, which then interacted with the innate immune adaptors IMD and Rip1-Rip2 in flies and mammalian cells, respectively, to drive an immune response
The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases.
Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2
, EN-7 protein
, protein EN-7
, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2
, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP-binding protein Rac2)
, small G protein
, RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 2
, ras-related protein