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solution structure of human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein STARD1 studied by small-angle X-ray scattering
Data suggest that expression of STAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and AKR1B10 (show AKR1B10 Proteins) (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (show ENPP3 Proteins)) is down-regulated in high-grade versus low-grade endometrial tumors; expression of AKR1B10 (show AKR1B10 Proteins) correlates with body mass index, with up-regulation of expression of AKR1B10 (show AKR1B10 Proteins) in obese patients with endometrial tumors.
target of the microRNA let-7, which itself is regulated by the long noncoding RNA H19 (show NCKAP1 Proteins)
Immunostaining of CLOCK and PER2 (show PER2 Proteins) protein was detected in the granulosa cells of dominant antral follicles but was absent in the primordial, primary, or preantral follicles of human ovaries.Oscillating expression of the circadian gene PER2 (show PER2 Proteins) can be induced by testosterone in human granulosa cells in vitro. Expression of STAR also displayed an oscillating pattern after testosterone stimulation
activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4 (show ACVR1B Proteins)-mediated SMAD2 (show SMAD2 Proteins)/SMAD4 (show SMAD4 Proteins)-dependent pathway.
Mutagenesis confirmed that Arg(312) and Arg(313) are crucial for this mode of regulation, and novel interactions with the START domain
StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, the matrix LON (show LONP1 Proteins) protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 (show AFG3L2 Proteins) and AFG3L2 (show AFG3L2 Proteins):SPG7/paraplegin (show SPG7 Proteins).
BMP15 (show BMP15 Proteins) down-regulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via ALK3 (show BMPR1A Proteins)-mediated SMAD1 (show GARS Proteins)/5/8 signaling.
The novel mutation p.Trp147Arg of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein causes classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia with adrenal insufficiency and 46,XY disorder of sex development.
Expression of StAR and P45011beta (cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily B polypeptide 1 (show CYP11B1 Proteins)) is down-regulated in adrenocortical cells and neurons under oxidative stress by ALADIN (show AAAS Proteins) (triple A syndrome protein, human) knockdown.
StAR may activate PPARgamma (show PPARG Proteins) by increasing UFAs, which leads to a protective role in systemic inflammation and insulin (show INS Proteins) resistance in obese mice.
ChIP results confirmed the binding of NRF1 (show NRF1 Proteins) to StAR promoter region. In conclusion, decline of NRF1 (show NRF1 Proteins) expression downregulated the level of StAR, which ultimately resulted in a reduction in testosterone synthesis.
The results demonstrated that ZnT7 (show SLC30A7 Proteins) gene silencing downregulated the expression of StAR, P450scc (show CYP11A1 Proteins) and 3beta-HSD (show HAL Proteins) as well as progesterone concentrations in the human chorionic gonadotrophin-stimulated Leydig tumor cells.
cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci.
Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress by altering the expression of iNOS (show NOS2 Proteins), which consequently leads to the down regulation of StAR expression in the testis of male mouse
Results show that HIF1alpha (show HIF1A Proteins) appears to be a positive regulator of basal and stimulated STAR-expression, which under partial hypoxia is capable of increasing the steroidogenic capacity of granulosa cells.
The result showed significant correlation between changes in GLUT 8 (show SLC2A8 Proteins) and glucose levels with changes in StAR level in the testis and circulating testosterone level in the mice from birth to senescence
Deletion of the START domain from Arabidopsis Glabra2, a representative HD-Zip transcription factor, results in a complete loss-of-function phenotype. The mammalian START domain from StAR can functionally replace the HD-Zip-derived START domain.
These discoveries highlight the importance of mitochondrial fusion and ERK (show EPHB2 Proteins) phosphorylation in cholesterol transport by means of directing StAR to the outer mitochondrial membrane.
Results suggest that gonadotropins play a key role in the regulation of StAR, 17beta-HSD3, and P450aromA in zebrafish.
Data indicate that Ser738/742-to-glutamate (show GRIN2A Proteins) protein kinase D (show PRKD1 Proteins) mutant increased AngII-induced CREB (show CREB1 Proteins) protein and activating transcription factor 2 (show ATF2 Proteins) phosphorylation, and phospho-CREB (show CREB1 Proteins) binding to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein promoter.
Data suggest that Escherichia coli infections (here, administration of LPS (show IRF6 Proteins)) provokes luteolysis in diestrus, non-lactating cows and down-regulation of expression of StAR in corpus luteum but has no effect on luteinization in the following cycle.
The binding of SF-1 (show NR5A1 Proteins) to the CYP17 (show CYP17A1 Proteins) and StAR promoter regions increased in theca cells incubated with low levels of luteinizing hormone.
Inhibition of the acetylation of histone H3 (show HIST3H3 Proteins) associated with the StAR promoter region by BMP-4 (show BMP4 Proteins) may be one of the inhibitory molecular mechanisms of progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells.
c-Fos/c-Jun (show JUN Proteins) complex binds to the proximal StAR promoter in glomerulosa cells, thus activating StAR gene expression and acute aldosterone biosynthesis.
We found that adiponectin and insulin (show INS Proteins) alone regulate the expression of StAR, CYP11A1 (show CYP11A1 Proteins) and HSD3B1 (show HSD3B1 Proteins) genes and secretion of P4 and A4 by the porcine endometrial and myometrial tissue explants during early pregnancy and the oestrous cycle.
GATA-4 (show GATA4 Proteins) and C/EBPbeta (show CEBPB Proteins) are both required for FSH (show BRD2 Proteins) +/- IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) stimulation of the porcine steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter in homologous granulosa cell cultures.
EGF (show EGF Proteins) repression of FSH (show BRD2 Proteins)-stimulated StAR transcription in porcine granulosa cells is accompanied by reductions in histone H3 (show HIST3H3 Proteins) acetylation associated with the StAR gene promoter
The altered ratio of GATA4 (show GATA4 Proteins) to GATA6 (show GATA6 Proteins) after ovulation may allow GATA6 (show GATA6 Proteins) to enhance STAR mRNA accumulation.
Under hypoxia reoxygenation or ischemia and reperfusion, StAR and CYP11A1 protein and gene expression was reduced without apparent relation to TSPO changes.
Data suggest enzymes in steroidogenic pathway are induced in interrenal cells during acute/chronic stress: mc2r (melanocortin 2 receptor); StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein); 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; steroid 11beta hydroxylase.
The results showed that MMP-2 (show MMP2 Proteins), MMP-9 (show MMP9 Proteins), and StAR were significantly expressed in the granulosa and thecal cells of the ovarian atretic follicles during proestrus, and were strongly expressed in the corpus luteum during metestrus.
The protein encoded by this gene plays a key role in the acute regulation of steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone. This protein permits the cleavage of cholesterol into pregnenolone by mediating the transport of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mutations in this gene are a cause of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), also called lipoid CAH. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 13.
START domain containing 1
, START domain-containing protein 1
, StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 1
, cholesterol trafficker
, mitochondrial steroid acute regulatory protein
, steroid acute regulatory protein
, steroidogenic acute regulator
, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial
, luteinizing hormone-induced protein
, lipid transporter
, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
, mitochondrial steroidogenic acute regulatory protein