antibodies-online offers a handpicked selection of proven SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kits for the detection of IgG and the COVID-19 IgM in human samples.
First assays and test kits for COVID-19 utilized genetic material directly against SARS-COV-2. However, comparisons of the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 have shown similarities to SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses revealing problems in their specificity.
Qualitative and quantitative human IgG and IgM ELISAs overcome the problem as they are produced by the human immune system during and after an infection. IgG is the most abundant immunoglobulin to be produced in response to an antigen and is maintained in the body after initial exposure for long term response. Antibody titer is 4 times or higher than that of the acute phase.
IgM on the other hand is the first immunoglobulin to be produced in response to an antigen and is primarily detected during the early onset of disease.1
Clinicians and researchers use ELISA kits to estimate antibodies in samples of COVID-19 patients.
Western blot (WB) and microneutralisation (MN) assay of samples collected at convalescence of COVID-19 showed a prominent response against the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) protein, confirming their role as main candidate diagnostic targets for SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kits.2 Spike (S) protein ELISA kits focus on the infection itself. The interaction of N protein with the host cell, the modulation of cell signaling pathways in particular, has big impact on the course of COVID-19 disease in human patients.
The N protein triggers activation of the lectin pathway of the complement system through interaction with mannose binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)2. Released soluble N protein dimers interact with MASP-2, further accelerating MASP-2 activation and activation of the complements system. The positive feedback through cell lysis and release of N-protein leads to elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, characterized as cytokine storm. 3,4
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Zhao J, Yuan Q, Wang H, Liu W, Liao X, Su Y et al. (2020) "Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease." Pre-print medRxiv 2020.03.02.20030189.
Haveri A, Smura T, Kuivanen S, Österlund P, Hepojoki J, Ikonen N, et al. (2020) "Serological and molecular findings during SARS-CoV-2 infection: the first case study in Finland, January to February." Euro Surveill25(11):2000266.
Gao T et al. (2020): "Highly pathogenic coronavirus N protein aggravates lung injury by MASP-2-mediated complement over-activation." medRxiv,
Risitano AM et al. (2020): “Complement as a target in COVID-19?” Nature Reviews Immunology, 65(12): 1337-45