Since the initial identification of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 as causative agent of COVID-19 almost 5.000.000 infections (as of 20 May 2020) have been registered worldwide. Thanks to global research efforts, a picture of the virus biology and its effect in the human host is emerging. We offer a wide variety of high quality products for COVID-19 research. Click on the links below to discover our product portfolio.

SARS-COV-2 Antibodies

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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IgG / IgM ELISA Kits, N-Protein ELISA Kits, S-Protein ELISA Kits

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SARS-CoV-2 primarily infection is initiated when the host cell angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) surface receptor is bound by the virus’ spike (S) protein through its receptor binding domain (RBD). ACE2 is encoded on the X chromosome, which might explain the higher COVID-19 fatality rate in men. Possibly, having two different ACE2 alleles confers some degree of resistance.

Binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 triggers priming of the trimeric S protein at the polybasic S1/S2 cleavage site by the cell surface-associated transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and to a lesser degree cathepsin B and L. The S1 ectodomain containing the RBD determines cellular tropism and attachment of the virus to its target cell. The S2 endodomain harbors a transmembrane domain and is involved in virus entry through endocytosis. It also contains a second protease site, the furin-like S2’ cleavage site. Precleavage at this furin-like cleavage site might explain the higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV (which lacks this site).

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anti-ACE2 antibody (Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2) Human Monoclonal FACS, ELISA, WB ABIN1169449 100 μg element-ABIN1169449
anti-Cathepsin B antibody (CTSB) Mouse (Murine), Rat (Rattus), Human Polyclonal IHC, WB ABIN3021176 100 μL element-ABIN3021176
anti-Cathepsin L1 antibody (CTSL1) (AA 1-333) Human Monoclonal ELISA ABIN1996947 100 μL element-ABIN1996947
anti-TMPRSS2 antibody (Transmembrane Protease, serine 2) (Internal Region) Human Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN570926 100 μg element-ABIN570926

Viral Replication

Upon entry, the viral positive-sense ssRNA(+) genome is released. Two large polycistronic open reading frames ORF1a and ORF1b at the 5’ end of the genome encode 16 non-structural proteins (NSPs) forming two replicase polyproteins pp1a and pp1b. Nsp3 contains a papain-like protease (PLpro) domain and processes Nsp1-4 of pp1a. The 3C-like main chymotrypsin-like protease (Mpro, 3CLpro, Nsp5) of SARS-CoV-2 digests the remaining proteolytic cleavage sites.


Nsp1 and Nsp2 are thought to play a role in host modulation to suppress an antiviral response. A complex consisting of transmembrane proteins Nsp3, Nsp4, and Nsp6 induces formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMV) improving viral replication through membrane associated replication and affecting autophagy. In addition to its NSPs SARS-CoV-2 recruits host proteins to form a replication and transcription complexes (RTC). Core component for the replication of the ssRNA(+) is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). It forms the replication complex together with Nsp7 and Nsp8. These serve as primase and generate short RNA primers for the primer-dependent RdRp and increase its processivity. Nsp9 has a preference for ssRNA and is believed to interact with Nsp8 in the replication complex. Nsp13 and Nsp16/Nsp10 have helicase/triphosphatase and methyltransferase activity respectively and cap the nascent viral mRNA. The exonuclease Nsp14 (ExoN) endows the replication machinery with a proofreading function, thus increasing fidelity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA synthesis. The last protein of the replication complex is the uridine-specific endoribonuclease Nsp15 (EndoU).

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SARS-CoV-2 2'-O-Ribose Methyltransferase (NSP16) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952577 1 mg element-ABIN6952577
SARS-CoV-2 3C-Like Proteinase (NSP5) (3CL-PRO, M-Pro) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952691 100 μg element-ABIN6952691
SARS-CoV-2 Guanine-N7 Methyltransferase (NSP14) (ExoN) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952575 1 mg element-ABIN6952575
SARS-CoV-2 Helicase (NSP13) (HEL) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952696 100 μg element-ABIN6952696
SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Protein 10 (NSP10) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952572 1 mg element-ABIN6952572
SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Protein 4 (NSP4) protein (rho-1D4 tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952566 0.5 mg element-ABIN6952566
SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Protein 6 (NSP6) protein (rho-1D4 tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952568 0.5 mg element-ABIN6952568
SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Protein 7 (NSP7) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952692 100 μg element-ABIN6952692
SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Protein 8 (NSP8) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952693 100 μg element-ABIN6952693
SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Protein 9 (NSP9) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952694 100 μg element-ABIN6952694
SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (NSP12) (SARS-CoV-2 RdRP) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952695 100 μg element-ABIN6952695
SARS-CoV-2 Uridylate-Specific Endoribonuclease (NSP15) protein (His tag) Insect Cells ABIN6952576 1 mg element-ABIN6952576

Once the RTC is assembled, a dsRNA intermediate is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+). This intermediate serves as template for the production of subgenome-length RNAs (sgRNA) and new, full-length ssRNA(+) genome. The former are transcribed into the virus’ four structural proteins (N, E, M, and S) and nine accessory proteins encoded in the 3’ section of the genome. The latter is packaged into nucleocapsid phosphoproteins (N protein) and then enveloped by the envelope protein (E protein), the membrane glycoprotein (M protein), and spike protein (S protein) to form new virions.

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SARS-CoV-2 Envelope (SARS-CoV-2 E) (AA 1-75) protein (His-Avi Tag) Escherichia coli (E. coli) ABIN6952737 100 μg element-ABIN6952737
SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (SARS-CoV-2 N) (AA 1-419) protein (His tag) Escherichia coli (E. coli) ABIN6952738 100 μg element-ABIN6952738
SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Trimer) protein (rho-1D4 tag) HEK-293 Cells ABIN6952670 100 μg element-ABIN6952670
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anti-SARS-CoV-2 Envelope antibody (SARS-CoV-2 E) (N-Term) SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA ABIN1031551 0.1 mg element-ABIN1031551
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Envelope antibody (SARS-CoV-2 E) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952904 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952904
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Membrane Protein antibody (SARS-CoV-2 M) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952906 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952906
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antibody (SARS-CoV-2 N) (AA 1-419) (Fc Tag) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Chimeric GICA, ELISA, WB ABIN6952664 100 μL element-ABIN6952664
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antibody (SARS-CoV-2 N) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Monoclonal GICA, ELISA, WB ABIN6952768 100 μg element-ABIN6952768
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antibody (RBD) SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Monoclonal Crys, ELISA, Neut, SPR ABIN6952546 200 μg element-ABIN6952546
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antibody (Fc Tag) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Chimeric GICA, ELISA ABIN6952663 100 μL element-ABIN6952663


Disease severity in patients is due not only to the viral infection but also the host response. The host’s inflammatory response strongly influences the damage to the airways. In 70% of the fatal COVID-19 cases, the resulting acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS) leads directly to respiratory failure. The second-most common cause for fatalities in context with COVID-19 is an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response driven by overproduction of inflammation markers. This so-called cytokine release syndrome or cytokine storm is an important contributor to ARDS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) causing damage in particular to heart, kidneys, and liver.

SARS-CoV-2 infection and Inflammatory Response

SARS-CoV-2 primarily replicates in the lower respiratory tract where it causes pneumonia and ARDS. While the virus’ structural and non-structural proteins are mainly tasked with building up the virion and virus replication respectively, at least some of the members of the third group of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, the nine accessory factors (Orf3a-10), have been implicated in driving progression of COVID-19.

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anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952939 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952939
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952940 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952940
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952943 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952943
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952945 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952945
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952946 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952946
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952947 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952947
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952948 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952948
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SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a (AA 126-275) protein (His tag) Escherichia coli (E. coli) ABIN6952944 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952944
SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 (AA 16-121) protein (His tag) Escherichia coli (E. coli) ABIN6952951 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952951

SARS-CoV-2 Orf3a induces apoptosis in cell line models and is thought to activate NF-kB and the NLRP3 inflammasome involved in pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of apoptosis. Orf8b was shown to induce ER stress and to also activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. This suggests that viral infection of airway epithelial cells leads to pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cells death. Pyroptosis is typically accompanied by the release of proinflammatory cytokines leading to the recruitment of additional immune cells and further amplification of the immune response. Orf3a also induces secretion of the pyroptosis marker IL-1 beta. Orf7a may also play a role in pathogenesis via its role in virus-induced apoptosis.

The extent of damage to tissue in the lower respiratory tract can be monitored in the early stages of COVID-19 using C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as an indicator for disease severity.

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anti-C-Reactive Protein (CRP) antibody Human Monoclonal EIA, FACS, IHC (p), WB ABIN1105591 0.1 mL element-ABIN1105591
anti-NFkB cRel antibody Human, Mouse (Murine) Monoclonal ICC, IHC, ELISA, WB ABIN968997 100 μL element-ABIN968997
anti-NLRP3 antibody (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3) (C-Term) Human Polyclonal ELISA, FACS, IF ABIN184887 100 μg element-ABIN184887
anti-NFKB1 antibody (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells 1) Human Polyclonal IF, IHC, WB ABIN6144571 100 μL element-ABIN6144571
anti-NFKB2 antibody (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells 2) (pSer866) Human Polyclonal IF, IHC, WB ABIN3020403 100 μL element-ABIN3020403
anti-p65 antibody (Nuclear Factor-KB P65) Human Monoclonal IF, IHC, IP, WB ABIN6135887 100 μL element-ABIN6135887
anti-V-Rel Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog B (RELB) (C-Term) antibody Human, Mouse (Murine) Polyclonal ChIP, IP, IHC (p), WB ABIN2855360 100 μL element-ABIN2855360
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) ELISA Kit Human ELISA ABIN6574220 96 tests element-ABIN6574220

The destruction of the alveolar epithelial cells sets damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) free, which are detected by pattern‐recognition receptors (PRRs) on alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. The primary PRRs for viral RNAs are members of the RIG‐I‐like receptor (RLR) family. Upon binding to viral RNA, a conformational change of the RLRs triggers aggregation of MAVS and formation of the MAVS signalosome. The MAVS signalosome triggers IRF3/7 dimerization and activates NF‐κB pathway, leading to the production of type I IFNs, the most important antiviral cytokines, and pro‐inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-gamma, CD46, and CXCL10. The coordinated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines leads to recruitment of immune cells, in particular CD4+ T helper cells (TH1), CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and monocytes, to mount the defense against the viral infection.

As a type I IFN antagonist, SARS-Cov-2 Orf6 inhibits the IFN response. Orf9b targets the MAVS signalosome for degradation and therefore limits the host cell interferon responses. Orf9c interacts with the mitochondrial electron transport chain which is involved in TLR/IL-1 signaling and regulation of inflammation. Nsp1 suppresses IFN induction and increases CCL5 production, thus contributing to inflammatory processes.

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anti-CD46 Molecule, Complement Regulatory Protein (CD46) antibody Human, Cow (Bovine) Monoclonal FACS, IP, WB ABIN94149 0.1 mg element-ABIN94149
anti-Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) antibody Human, Mouse (Murine), Monkey Monoclonal ICC, FACS, IHC, ELISA, WB ABIN969505 0.1 mg element-ABIN969505
anti-CCL3 antibody (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 3) (C-Term) Human Polyclonal ELISA ABIN185352 100 μg element-ABIN185352
anti-CCL5 antibody (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 5) Human Monoclonal ELISA, WB ABIN1574139 40 μg element-ABIN1574139
anti-CXCL10 antibody (Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 10) Human Monoclonal IA, IHC (fro), FACS, WB ABIN2191895 100 μg element-ABIN2191895
anti-IFNA antibody (Interferon alpha) Mouse (Murine), Rat (Rattus), Human Polyclonal WB ABIN3020881 100 μL element-ABIN3020881
anti-IFNG antibody (Interferon gamma) Human Monoclonal ELISA, WB ABIN1724679 100 μL element-ABIN1724679
anti-Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) antibody Human Polyclonal IF, IHC, WB ABIN1513098 100 μg element-ABIN1513098
anti-IRF7 antibody (Interferon Regulatory Factor 7) Mouse (Murine), Rat (Rattus), Human Polyclonal FACS, IP, WB ABIN1513103 100 μg element-ABIN1513103
anti-IFNB1 antibody (Interferon, beta 1, Fibroblast) Human Polyclonal IHC, WB ABIN3022168 100 μL element-ABIN3022168
anti-IL1A antibody (Interleukin 1 alpha) Human Monoclonal ELISA, WB ABIN1724632 100 μL element-ABIN1724632
anti-IL1B antibody (Interleukin 1, beta) Human Monoclonal ICC, IHC, ELISA, WB ABIN969215 100 μL element-ABIN969215
anti-IL-10 antibody (Interleukin 10) Human Monoclonal ELISA ABIN376351 0.5 mg element-ABIN376351
anti-IL2 antibody (Interleukin 2) Human Monoclonal ELISA, WB ABIN969214 100 μL element-ABIN969214
anti-Interleukin 6 antibody (IL6) Human Monoclonal FACS, IHC, Neut, RIA, ELISA, WB ABIN964743 100 μg element-ABIN964743
anti-IL7 antibody (Interleukin 7) Human Polyclonal IHC, Neut, RIA, ELISA, WB ABIN964757 100 μg element-ABIN964757
anti-MAVS antibody (Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein) (Internal Region) Human Polyclonal ELISA, FM, IHC, WB ABIN6657099 100 μg element-ABIN6657099
anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor antibody (TNF) Human Polyclonal Neut, IHC, ELISA, WB ABIN5596796 100 μL element-ABIN5596796

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IL7 ELISA Kit (Interleukin 7) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Plasma, Serum Colorimetric
ABIN1446064 96 tests element-ABIN1446064
Interleukin 6 ELISA Kit (IL6) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Plasma, Serum Colorimetric
ABIN1446059 96 tests element-ABIN1446059
IL2 ELISA Kit (Interleukin 2) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Cell Lysate, Plasma, Serum, Tissue Homogenate Colorimetric
ABIN6730879 96 tests element-ABIN6730879
IL-10 ELISA Kit (Interleukin 10) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Cell Lysate, Plasma, Serum, Tissue Homogenate Colorimetric
ABIN6574129 96 tests element-ABIN6574129
IL1B ELISA Kit (Interleukin 1, beta) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Cell Lysate, Plasma, Serum, Tissue Homogenate Colorimetric
ABIN6574165 96 tests element-ABIN6574165
IL1A ELISA Kit (Interleukin 1 alpha) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Cell Lysate, Plasma, Serum, Tissue Homogenate Colorimetric
ABIN6730878 96 tests element-ABIN6730878
Human TNF-a ELISpot Kit Sterile plate ABIN1447108 96 tests element-ABIN1447108
Human Interferon gamma ELISpot Kit Sterile plate ABIN1446656 96 tests element-ABIN1446656

Cytokine Release Syndrome – the “Cytokine Storm”

In most cases, a SARS-CoV-2 infection is cleared at this stage by the recruited immune cells and the immune response is downregulated. However, in patients developing severe COVID-19, inflammatory processes do not subside. Instead, IL-6 levels continue to increase and the levels of IL- 2, IL-7, IL-10, TNF-α, G-CSF, CXCL10, CCL2, and CCL3 are also substantially higher in COVID-19 patients. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers are anti-proportional to the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 in COVID-19 patients. Expression of the exhaustion markers PD-1 and HAVCR2 are also increased in these cells.

On the other hand, in severe cases of COVID-19 numbers of CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocytes are increased in peripheral blood. CD14+CD16+ monocytes have also been linked to Kawasaki Disease, a rare acute inflammatory disease of the arteries in young children that has been observed in conjunction with COVID-19 recently. These CD14+CD16+ monocytes are also CD11b+ , CD14+ , CD16+ , CD68+ , CD80+ , CD163+ , CD206+ and secrete IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha, thus further contributing to inflammation.

All these factors contribute to the development of a cytokine release syndrome or cytokine storm, an excessive inflammatory reaction in which cytokines are rapidly produced in large amount in response to an infection. Cytokine storm is considered an important contributor to ARDS and MODS.

The SARS-CoV-2 N protein triggers activation of the lectin pathway of the complement system through interaction with mannose binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)2. Released soluble N protein dimers interact with MASP-2, further accelerating MASP-2 activation and activation of the complements system. The positive feedback through cell lysis and release of N-protein leads to further increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and aggravation of the cytokine storm.

In addition to the damaging effect on the alveolar structure, inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF induce increases expression of HA-synthase-2 (HAS2) in CD31+ endothelium, EpCAM+ lung alveolar epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. HAS2 catalyzes polymerization of hyaluronan, a component of the extracellular matrix that can absorb water up to a 1000 times its weight. Accumulation of this liquid jelly in the damaged lungs further limits the gas exchange in the lung, leading to low oxygen saturation of the blood.

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anti-CD14 antibody (CD14 Molecule) Human, Non-Human Primate Monoclonal Func, FACS, IP, ELISA, WB ABIN93963 0.1 mg element-ABIN93963
anti-CD16 Molecule (CD16) antibody Human, Non-Human Primate Monoclonal FACS, Func, IHC (f), IP ABIN509571 0.1 mg element-ABIN509571
anti-CD163 antibody (CD163 Molecule) Human Monoclonal FACS, IHC (f), IP, WB ABIN775706 0.1 mg element-ABIN775706
anti-CD4 antibody (CD4 Molecule) Cynomolgus, Human, Rhesus Monkey Chimeric FACS, IF, IHC (p), IP, WB ABIN5668250 200 μg element-ABIN5668250
anti-CD68 antibody (CD68 Molecule) Human, Monkey, Mouse (Murine), Rat (Rattus) Monoclonal FACS, IF, IHC, ISt, StM, WB ABIN6941241 100 μg element-ABIN6941241
anti-CD8 antibody Human Monoclonal FACS, IP, MCA ABIN94232 0.1 mg element-ABIN94232
anti-CD80 antibody (CD80) (Extracellular Domain) Human Monoclonal FACS, IP ABIN94239 0.1 mg element-ABIN94239
anti-CD8 antibody (CD8a Molecule) (AA 1077-1265) Human Monoclonal ELISA, FACS, WB ABIN5684128 0.1 mg element-ABIN5684128
anti-CSF3 antibody (Colony Stimulating Factor 3 (Granulocyte)) (AA 1-207) Human Monoclonal ELISA, FACS, ICC, IHC, WB ABIN5542305 0.1 mg element-ABIN5542305
anti-EPCAM antibody (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule) Human Monoclonal FACS, IF, IHC, StM ABIN6939995 100 μg element-ABIN6939995
anti-FCGR2B antibody (Fc Fragment of IgG, Low Affinity IIb, Receptor (CD32)) Human Monoclonal FACS, MCA ABIN1981874 0.1 mg element-ABIN1981874
anti-TIM3 antibody (Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2) (AA 22-202) Human Monoclonal ELISA, FACS, ICC, WB ABIN5611217 0.1 mg element-ABIN5611217
anti-Hyaluronan Synthase 2 (HAS2) (AA 67-170) antibody Human Monoclonal ICC, IHC, ELISA, WB ABIN1098124 0.1 mg element-ABIN1098124
anti-CD11b antibody (Integrin alpha M) Human Monoclonal FACS, IP ABIN125683 0.1 mg element-ABIN125683
anti-MASP2 antibody (Mannan-Binding Lectin serine Peptidase 2) (Internal Region) Human Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN3185469 100 μL element-ABIN3185469
anti-Macrophage Mannose Receptor 1 antibody (Mannose Receptor, C Type 1) Human Monoclonal Func, IHC (f), ICC, FACS, IP, WB ABIN2749171 0.1 mg element-ABIN2749171
anti-Mannose-Binding Lectin C antibody Human Monoclonal BR, IA, IHC (fro), FACS, WB ABIN2191923 100 μg element-ABIN2191923
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