COVID-19

Since the initial identification of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 as causative agent of COVID-19 almost 15.000.000 infections (as of 23 July 2020) have been registered worldwide. Thanks to global research efforts, a picture of the virus biology and its effect in the human host is emerging. We offer a wide variety of high quality products for COVID-19 research. Click on the links below to discover our product portfolio.

SARS-COV-2 Antibodies

S Protein, M Protein, E Protein, N Protein, Neutralizing Abs, CR3022

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

Recombinant S Protein, M Protein, E Protein, N Protein, NSPs

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SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kits

IgG / IgM ELISA Kits, N Protein ELISA Kits, S Protein ELISA Kits

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection

SARS-CoV-2 primarily infection is initiated when the host cell angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) surface receptor is bound by the virus’ spike (S) protein through its receptor binding domain (RBD). ACE2 is encoded on the X chromosome, which might explain the higher COVID-19 fatality rate in men. Possibly, having two different ACE2 alleles confers some degree of resistance.

Binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 triggers priming of the trimeric S protein at the polybasic S1/S2 cleavage site by the cell surface-associated transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and to a lesser degree cathepsin B and L. The S1 ectodomain containing the RBD determines cellular tropism and attachment of the virus to its target cell. The S2 endodomain harbors a transmembrane domain and is involved in virus entry through endocytosis. It also contains a second protease site, the furin-like S2’ cleavage site. Precleavage at this furin-like cleavage site might explain the higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV (which lacks this site).

Featured COVID-19 related Products:

Product Reactivity Clonality Clone Application Publications Cat. No. Quantity Relevance ProductGrid: uniqueid
anti-ACE2 antibody (Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2) Human Monoclonal AC18F FACS, ELISA, WB
  • (1)
  • (2)
ABIN1169449 100 μg element-ABIN1169449
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Envelope antibody (SARS-CoV-2 E) (N-Term) SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA
  • (2)
  • (1)
ABIN1031551 0.1 mg element-ABIN1031551
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antibody (SARS-CoV-2 N) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Monoclonal 1G5 GICA, ELISA, WB
  • (1)
ABIN6952768 100 μg element-ABIN6952768
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antibody (RBD) SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Monoclonal CR3022 Crys, ELISA, Neut, SPR
  • (8)
  • (3)
ABIN6952546 200 μg element-ABIN6952546
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antibody (RBD) SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Chimeric CR3022 Crys, ELISA, Neut, SPR
  • (7)
  • (2)
ABIN6952547 200 μg element-ABIN6952547
anti-TMPRSS2 antibody (Transmembrane Protease, serine 2) (Internal Region) Human Polyclonal ELISA, WB
  • (1)
ABIN570926 100 μg element-ABIN570926

>> See a complete list of our SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibodies

Viral Replication

Upon entry, the viral positive-sense ssRNA(+) genome is released. Two large polycistronic open reading frames ORF1a and ORF1b at the 5’ end of the genome encode 16 non-structural proteins (NSPs) forming two replicase polyproteins pp1a and pp1b. Nsp3 contains a papain-like protease (PLpro) domain and processes Nsp1-4 of pp1a. The 3C-like main chymotrypsin-like protease (Mpro, 3CLpro, Nsp5) of SARS-CoV-2 digests the remaining proteolytic cleavage sites.

SARS-CoV-2 NSPs

Nsp1 and Nsp2 are thought to play a role in host modulation to suppress an antiviral response. A complex consisting of transmembrane proteins Nsp3, Nsp4, and Nsp6 induces formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMV) improving viral replication through membrane associated replication and affecting autophagy. In addition to its NSPs SARS-CoV-2 recruits host proteins to form a replication and transcription complexes (RTC). Core component for the replication of the ssRNA(+) is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). It forms the replication complex together with Nsp7 and Nsp8. These serve as primase and generate short RNA primers for the primer-dependent RdRp and increase its processivity. Nsp9 has a preference for ssRNA and is believed to interact with Nsp8 in the replication complex. Nsp13 and Nsp16/Nsp10 have helicase/triphosphatase and methyltransferase activity respectively and cap the nascent viral mRNA. The exonuclease Nsp14 (ExoN) endows the replication machinery with a proofreading function, thus increasing fidelity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA synthesis. The last protein of the replication complex is the uridine-specific endoribonuclease Nsp15 (EndoU).

Once the RTC is assembled, a dsRNA intermediate is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+). This intermediate serves as template for the production of subgenome-length RNAs (sgRNA) and new, full-length ssRNA(+) genome. The former are transcribed into the virus’ four structural proteins (N, E, M, and S) and nine accessory proteins encoded in the 3’ section of the genome. The latter is packaged into nucleocapsid phosphoproteins (N protein) and then enveloped by the envelope protein (E protein), the membrane glycoprotein (M protein), and spike protein (S protein) to form new virions.

Featured COVID-19 related Antibody Products:

Product Reactivity Clonality Application Publications Cat. No. Quantity Relevance ProductGrid: uniqueid
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Envelope antibody (SARS-CoV-2 E) (N-Term) SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA
  • (2)
  • (1)
ABIN1031551 0.1 mg element-ABIN1031551
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Envelope antibody (SARS-CoV-2 E) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB
ABIN6952904 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952904
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Membrane Protein antibody (SARS-CoV-2 M) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB
ABIN6952906 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952906
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antibody (SARS-CoV-2 N) (AA 1-419) (Fc Tag) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Chimeric GICA, ELISA, WB
ABIN6952664 100 μL element-ABIN6952664
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antibody (SARS-CoV-2 N) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Monoclonal GICA, ELISA, WB
  • (1)
ABIN6952768 100 μg element-ABIN6952768
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antibody (RBD) SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Monoclonal Crys, ELISA, Neut, SPR
  • (8)
  • (3)
ABIN6952546 200 μg element-ABIN6952546
anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antibody (Fc Tag) SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Chimeric GICA, ELISA
ABIN6952663 100 μL element-ABIN6952663

Featured COVID-19 related Protein Products:

Product Source Publications Cat. No. Quantity Relevance ProductGrid: uniqueid
SARS-CoV-2 Envelope (SARS-CoV-2 E) (AA 1-75) protein (His-Avi Tag) Escherichia coli (E. coli)
  • (1)
ABIN6952737 100 μg element-ABIN6952737
SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (SARS-CoV-2 N) (AA 1-419) protein (His tag) Escherichia coli (E. coli)
  • (1)
ABIN6952738 100 μg element-ABIN6952738
SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Trimer) protein (rho-1D4 tag) HEK-293 Cells
  • (2)
ABIN6952670 100 μg element-ABIN6952670
SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 (Asn354Asp-Mutant), (Asp364Tyr-Mutant), (RBD) protein (His tag) HEK-293 Cells
  • (1)
  • (3)
ABIN6952634 100 μg element-ABIN6952634
SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein (His tag) HEK-293 Cells
  • (1)
  • (5)
ABIN6952427 100 μg element-ABIN6952427
SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein (His tag) HEK-293 Cells
  • (1)
ABIN6952318 200 μL element-ABIN6952318
SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 protein (His tag) HEK-293 Cells
  • (1)
ABIN6952319 200 μL element-ABIN6952319

>> See a complete list of all available SARS-CoV-2 NSP Proteins

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COVID-19

Disease severity in patients is due not only to the viral infection but also the host response. The host’s inflammatory response strongly influences the damage to the airways. In 70% of the fatal COVID-19 cases, the resulting acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS) leads directly to respiratory failure. The second-most common cause for fatalities in context with COVID-19 is an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response driven by overproduction of inflammation markers. This so-called cytokine release syndrome or cytokine storm is an important contributor to ARDS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) causing damage in particular to heart, kidneys, and liver.

SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Inflammatory Response

SARS-CoV-2 primarily replicates in the lower respiratory tract where it causes pneumonia and ARDS. While the virus’ structural and non-structural proteins are mainly tasked with building up the virion and virus replication respectively, at least some of the members of the third group of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, the nine accessory factors (Orf3a-10), have been implicated in driving progression of COVID-19.

SARS-CoV-2 Orf3a induces apoptosis in cell line models and is thought to activate NF-kB and the NLRP3 inflammasome involved in pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of apoptosis. Orf8b was shown to induce ER stress and to also activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. This suggests that viral infection of airway epithelial cells leads to pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cells death. Pyroptosis is typically accompanied by the release of proinflammatory cytokines leading to the recruitment of additional immune cells and further amplification of the immune response. Orf3a also induces secretion of the pyroptosis marker IL-1 beta. Orf7a may also play a role in pathogenesis via its role in virus-induced apoptosis.

The extent of damage to tissue in the lower respiratory tract can be monitored in the early stages of COVID-19 using C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as an indicator for disease severity.

The destruction of the alveolar epithelial cells sets damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) free, which are detected by pattern‐recognition receptors (PRRs) on alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. The primary PRRs for viral RNAs are members of the RIG‐I‐like receptor (RLR) family. Upon binding to viral RNA, a conformational change of the RLRs triggers aggregation of MAVS and formation of the MAVS signalosome. The MAVS signalosome triggers IRF3/7 dimerization and activates NF‐κB pathway, leading to the production of type I IFNs, the most important antiviral cytokines, and pro‐inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-gamma, CD46, and CXCL10. The coordinated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines leads to recruitment of immune cells, in particular CD4+ T helper cells (TH1), CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and monocytes, to mount the defense against the viral infection.

As a type I IFN antagonist, SARS-Cov-2 Orf6 inhibits the IFN response. Orf9b targets the MAVS signalosome for degradation and therefore limits the host cell interferon responses. Orf9c interacts with the mitochondrial electron transport chain which is involved in TLR/IL-1 signaling and regulation of inflammation. Nsp1 suppresses IFN induction and increases CCL5 production, thus contributing to inflammatory processes.

Related Antibodies: CRP, NFKB1, NFKB2, NFkB cRel, p65, RELB

Product Reactivity Clonality Application Publications Cat. No. Quantity Relevance ProductGrid: uniqueid
anti-C-Reactive Protein (CRP) antibody Human Monoclonal EIA, FACS, IHC (p), WB
  • (4)
ABIN1105591 0.1 mL element-ABIN1105591
anti-NFkB cRel antibody Human, Mouse (Murine) Monoclonal ICC, IHC, ELISA, WB
  • (2)
  • (4)
ABIN968997 100 μL element-ABIN968997
anti-NLRP3 antibody (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3) (C-Term) Human Polyclonal ELISA, FACS, IF
  • (6)
ABIN184887 100 μg element-ABIN184887
anti-NFKB1 antibody (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells 1) Human Polyclonal IF, IHC, WB
  • (2)
  • (3)
  • (1)
ABIN6144571 100 μL element-ABIN6144571
anti-NFKB2 antibody (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells 2) (pSer866) Human Polyclonal IF, IHC, WB
  • (3)
ABIN3020403 100 μL element-ABIN3020403
anti-p65 antibody (Nuclear Factor-KB P65) Human Monoclonal IF, IHC, IP, WB
  • (1)
  • (1)
  • (1)
ABIN6135887 100 μL element-ABIN6135887
anti-V-Rel Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog B (RELB) (C-Term) antibody Human, Mouse (Murine) Polyclonal ChIP, IP, IHC (p), WB
  • (5)
ABIN2855360 100 μL element-ABIN2855360

Related ORF Antibodies:

Product Reactivity Clonality Application Cat. No. Quantity Relevance ProductGrid: uniqueid
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952939 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952939
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952940 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952940
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952943 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952943
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952945 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952945
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952946 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952946
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952947 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952947
anti-SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 antibody SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polyclonal ELISA, WB ABIN6952948 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952948

Related ORF Proteins:

Product Source Cat. No. Quantity Relevance ProductGrid: uniqueid
SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a (AA 126-275) protein (His tag) Escherichia coli (E. coli) ABIN6952944 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952944
SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 (AA 16-121) protein (His tag) Escherichia coli (E. coli) ABIN6952951 0.1 mg element-ABIN6952951

Cytokine Release Syndrome – the “Cytokine Storm”

In most cases, a SARS-CoV-2 infection is cleared at this stage by the recruited immune cells and the immune response is downregulated. However, in patients developing severe COVID-19, inflammatory processes do not subside. Instead, IL-6 levels continue to increase and the levels of IL- 2, IL-7, IL-10, TNF-α, G-CSF, CXCL10, CCL2, and CCL3 are also substantially higher in COVID-19 patients. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers are anti-proportional to the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 in COVID-19 patients. Expression of the exhaustion markers PD-1 and HAVCR2 are also increased in these cells.

On the other hand, in severe cases of COVID-19 numbers of CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocytes are increased in peripheral blood. CD14+CD16+ monocytes have also been linked to Kawasaki Disease, a rare acute inflammatory disease of the arteries in young children that has been observed in conjunction with COVID-19 recently. These CD14+CD16+ monocytes are also CD11b+ , CD14+ , CD16+ , CD68+ , CD80+ , CD163+ , CD206+ and secrete IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha, thus further contributing to inflammation.

All these factors contribute to the development of a cytokine release syndrome or cytokine storm, an excessive inflammatory reaction in which cytokines are rapidly produced in large amount in response to an infection. Cytokine storm is considered an important contributor to ARDS and MODS.

The SARS-CoV-2 N protein triggers activation of the lectin pathway of the complement system through interaction with mannose binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)2. Released soluble N protein dimers interact with MASP-2, further accelerating MASP-2 activation and activation of the complements system. The positive feedback through cell lysis and release of N-protein leads to further increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and aggravation of the cytokine storm.

In addition to the damaging effect on the alveolar structure, inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF induce increases expression of HA-synthase-2 (HAS2) in CD31+ endothelium, EpCAM+ lung alveolar epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. HAS2 catalyzes polymerization of hyaluronan, a component of the extracellular matrix that can absorb water up to a 1000 times its weight. Accumulation of this liquid jelly in the damaged lungs further limits the gas exchange in the lung, leading to low oxygen saturation of the blood.

Cytokine Storm related Antibodies:

Product Reactivity Clonality Application Publications Cat. No. Quantity Relevance ProductGrid: uniqueid
anti-CD46 Molecule, Complement Regulatory Protein (CD46) antibody Human, Cow (Bovine) Monoclonal FACS, IP, WB
  • (8)
  • (1)
ABIN94149 0.1 mg element-ABIN94149
anti-Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) antibody Human, Mouse (Murine), Monkey Monoclonal ICC, FACS, IHC, ELISA, WB
  • (2)
  • (7)
ABIN969505 0.1 mg element-ABIN969505
anti-CCL3 antibody (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 3) (C-Term) Human Polyclonal ELISA
ABIN185352 100 μg element-ABIN185352
anti-CCL5 antibody (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 5) Human Monoclonal ELISA, WB
  • (1)
ABIN1574139 40 μg element-ABIN1574139
anti-CXCL10 antibody (Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 10) Human Monoclonal IA, IHC (fro), FACS, WB
  • (3)
ABIN2191895 100 μg element-ABIN2191895
anti-IFNA antibody (Interferon alpha) Mouse (Murine), Rat (Rattus), Human Polyclonal WB
  • (2)
ABIN3020881 100 μL element-ABIN3020881
anti-IFNG antibody (Interferon gamma) Human Monoclonal ELISA, WB
  • (3)
  • (1)
ABIN1724679 100 μL element-ABIN1724679
anti-Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) antibody Human Polyclonal IF, IHC, WB
  • (2)
  • (5)
ABIN1513098 100 μg element-ABIN1513098
anti-IRF7 antibody (Interferon Regulatory Factor 7) Mouse (Murine), Rat (Rattus), Human Polyclonal FACS, IP, WB
  • (1)
ABIN1513103 100 μg element-ABIN1513103
anti-IFNB1 antibody (Interferon, beta 1, Fibroblast) Human Polyclonal IHC, WB
  • (4)
ABIN3022168 100 μL element-ABIN3022168

Cytokine Storm related ELISA Kits:

Product Method Type Sample Type Detection Method Publications Cat. No. Quantity Relevance ProductGrid: uniqueid
IL7 ELISA Kit (Interleukin 7) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Plasma, Serum Colorimetric
(Pre-coated)
ABIN1446064 96 tests element-ABIN1446064
Interleukin 6 ELISA Kit (IL6) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Plasma, Serum Colorimetric
(Pre-coated)
  • (15)
ABIN1446059 96 tests element-ABIN1446059
IL2 ELISA Kit (Interleukin 2) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Cell Lysate, Plasma, Serum, Tissue Homogenate Colorimetric
(Pre-coated)
  • (1)
  • (4)
ABIN6730879 96 tests element-ABIN6730879
IL-10 ELISA Kit (Interleukin 10) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Cell Lysate, Plasma, Serum, Tissue Homogenate Colorimetric
(Pre-coated)
  • (14)
  • (5)
ABIN6574129 96 tests element-ABIN6574129
IL1B ELISA Kit (Interleukin 1, beta) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Cell Lysate, Plasma, Serum, Tissue Homogenate Colorimetric
(Pre-coated)
  • (25)
  • (4)
ABIN6574165 96 tests element-ABIN6574165
IL1A ELISA Kit (Interleukin 1 alpha) Sandwich ELISA Cell Culture Supernatant, Cell Lysate, Plasma, Serum, Tissue Homogenate Colorimetric
(Pre-coated)
  • (1)
  • (4)
ABIN6730878 96 tests element-ABIN6730878
Human TNF-a ELISpot Kit Sterile plate
ABIN1447108 96 tests element-ABIN1447108
Human Interferon gamma ELISpot Kit Sterile plate
ABIN1446656 96 tests element-ABIN1446656

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References

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    3. Diao, B. et al. Reduction and Functional Exhaustion of T Cells in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Front. Immunol. 11, 827 (2020).
    4. Gao, T. et al. Highly pathogenic coronavirus N protein aggravates lung injury by MASP-2- mediated complement over-activation. medRxiv (2020). doi:10.1101/2020.03.29.20041962
    5. Gao, Y. et al. Structure of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from 2019-nCoV, a major antiviral drug target. bioRxiv 2020.03.16.993386 (2020). doi:10.1101/2020.03.16.993386
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    7. Hoffmann, Markus; Kleine-Weber, H. et al. SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor. Cell 181, 1–10 (2020).
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    11. Tay, M. et al. The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 1–12 (2020). doi:10.1038/s41577-020-0311-8
    12. Wilk, A. et al. A single-cell atlas of the peripheral immune response in patients with severe COVID-19. Nat.Med. (2020). doi:10.1101/2020.04.17.20069930
    13. Wrapp, D. et al. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science. 367, 1260–1263 (2020).
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    15. Zhang, D. et al. COVID-19 infection induces readily detectable morphological and inflammation-related phenotypic changes in peripheral blood monocytes, the severity of which correlate with patient outcome. medRxiv (2020). doi:10.1101/2020.03.24.20042655
    16. Ziegler-Heitbrock, L. The CD14+ CD16+ blood monocytes: their role in infection and inflammation. J. Leukoc. Biol. 81, 584–592 (2007).