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Written/Edited by Julian Pampel, BSc

Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes located in the cytosol. Typically, they consist of a sensor protein, an adaptor protein containing an caspase recruitment domain, and a pro-inflammatory caspase. In case of the NLRP3 inflammasome, presently the best characterized inflammasome, the respective proteins are NLRP3, ASC/PYCARD, and CASP1. The caspase promotes maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 and Gasdermin D through proteolytic cleavage. Processing of IL-1beta and IL-18 and Gasdermin D drive pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of apoptosis. Subsequently to cleavage, the N-terminal part of Gasdermin D (GSDMD-N) localizes to the plasma membrane and forms pores through which IL-1beta and IL-18 are released. In addition, due to osmotic pressure the cell swells and ultimately bursts.

The formation of inflammasomes is triggered upon recognition of inflammatory stimuli by cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). NOD-like receptors (NLRs) were the first class of these sensors to be discovered. More recently, AIM2-like receptors (ALRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) have been added to this list. Assembly of different inflammasomes is in response to specific inflammatory ligands sensed by the respective receptors. These inflammatory ligands are molecular patterns that associated with pathogens (PAMPs) - such as bacteria, bacterial components (e.g. LPS , toxins, type III secretion systems components), and viruses - or with cellular damage (DAMPs) – such as nucleic acids, heat shock proteins, or markers for oxidative stress.

As part of the innate immune system, the primary role the inflammasome is likely the protection against invading pathogens. It is also involved in the initiation of the adaptive immune response through stimulation of the macrophages and regulation of Th17 cell differentiation. The NLRP3 inflammasome in particular has been implicated in metabolic disorders, allergic responses to environmental stimuli, and more recently in driving the cytokine storm in COVID-19.

Furthermore cardiovascular diseases, depression, neurogenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer are linked to inflammasome. Risk factors for said diseases, e.g. stress, smoking or diet activate the inflammasome which in turn leads to chronic inflammation that contributes to atherosclerosis, mood change and insulin resistance. The case is more difficult with cancer. Here cell type and context define whether inflammasomes support or combat cancer. Clinical trials targeting the NLRP3/CASP1 pathways show promising results in treatment of disease mentioned above. However, in order to explore the full therapeutic potential of inflammasomes greater understanding of involved signaling molecules is required.


  1. Schroder, Tschopp: "The inflammasomes." in: Cell, Vol. 140, Issue 6, pp. 821-32, (2010) (PubMed).
  2. Davis, Wen, Ting: "The inflammasome NLRs in immunity, inflammation, and associated diseases." in: Annual review of immunology, Vol. 29, pp. 707-35, (2011) (PubMed).
  3. de Zoete, Palm, Zhu, Flavell: "Inflammasomes." in: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, Vol. 6, Issue 12, pp. a016287, (2015) (PubMed).
  4. Li, Huang, Liu, Zhang, Pan, Yu, Shen, Song: "Inflammasomes as therapeutic targets in human diseases." in: Signal transduction and targeted therapy, Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 247, (2022) (PubMed).

Selected Inflammasome Antibodies & ELISA Kits

Cat. No.
Reactivity Rat
  • (82)
  • (6)
Cat. No. ABIN6574167
Quantity 96 tests
Price $506.21
Reactivity Human
  • (53)
  • (6)
Cat. No. ABIN6574155
Quantity 96 tests
Price $696.32
Reactivity Various Species
  • (24)
  • (3)
  • (1)
Cat. No. ABIN6574100
Quantity 96 tests
Price $994.74
Reactivity Human, Mouse
  • (60)
  • (5)
Cat. No. ABIN1169100
Quantity 100 μg
Price $481.25
Reactivity Human
  • (2)
  • (6)
Cat. No. ABIN969215
Quantity 100 μL
Price $511.50
Reactivity Mouse
  • (3)
  • (2)
Cat. No. ABIN964783
Quantity 500 μg
Price $621.50
Reactivity Human, Mouse, Rat
  • (1)
Cat. No. ABIN1169270
Quantity 100 μg
Price $418.75


NLRP1 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 1):

NLRP3 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3):

NLRP6 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 6):

NLRP12 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 12):

NLRC4 (NLR Family, CARD Domain Containing 4):

IFI16 (Interferon, gamma-Inducible Protein 16):

NLRP14 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 14):

NLRP13 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 13):

NLRP11 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 11):

NLRP10 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 10):

NLRP9 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 9):


NLRP7 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 7):

NLRP5 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 5):

NLRP4 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 4):

NLRP2 (NLR Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 2):

Stimuli (DAMPs, PAMPs)


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