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Glucagon role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.[review]
This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of GLP-1 in the protection against oxidative damage and the activation of the Nrf2 (show GABPA Proteins) signaling pathway. [review]
Study concludes that in healthy subjects, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases cardiac output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work.
Chenodeoxycholic acid stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
The results demonstrate that glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin (show INS Proteins) synergistically and additively activate vagal afferent neurons.
DPP-4 (show DPP4 Proteins) activity and GLP (show RCBTB1 Proteins)-1total levels were higher in patients with microvascular complications associated with T2DM. Contrary to expectations, no negative correlation was seen between GLP-1 and DDP (show TIMM8A Proteins)-4 levels. This result suggests the possible inefficacy of DDP (show TIMM8A Proteins)-4 activity as a marker to predict in vivo degradation of endogenous GLP-1.
Data suggest that cAMP acts as amplifier of insulin (show INS Proteins) secretion triggered by Ca2 (show CA2 Proteins)+ elevation in beta-cells; both messengers are also positive modulators of glucagon release from alpha-cells, but in this case cAMP signaling may be the important regulator and Ca2 (show CA2 Proteins)+ signaling has a more permissive role. [REVIEW]
This study provides evidence that, in HepG2 cells, GLP-1 may affect cholesterol homeostasis by regulating the expression of miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-758 and ABCA1 (show ABCA1 Proteins).
This study reports the transition dipole strengths and frequencies of the amyloid beta-sheet amide I mode for the aggregated proteins amyloid-beta1-40, calcitonin (show CALCA Proteins), alpha-synuclein, and glucagon.
genetic association studies in population in China: Data confirm that an SNP in an intron of SLC47A1 (rs2289669) is associated with hypoglycemic response to metformin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes; differential increases in basal GLP1 plasma levels are also related to this SNP. (SLC47A1 = solute carrier family 47 member 1; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide-1)
this study, we investigated whether glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), hormones produced by alpha cells, contribute to insulin (show INS Proteins) secretion in INS-1 cells, a beta (show SUCLA2 Proteins) cell line. Co-treatment with glucagon and exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 receptor (show GLP1R Proteins) agonist, additively increased glucose-stimulated insulin (show INS Proteins) secretion in INS-1 cells
FXR (show NR1H4 Proteins) exerts its function in L cells through interacting with CREB (show CREB1 Proteins), a crucial transcriptional regulator of cAMP-CREB (show CREB1 Proteins) signaling pathway, to inhibit its transcriptional activity. Targeting FXR (show NR1H4 Proteins) to rescue GLP-1 secretion may be a promising strategy for type II diabetes.
results show that glucagon controls gene expression and metabolic zonation in the liver through a counterplay with the Wnt (show WNT2 Proteins)/beta-catenin (show CTNNB1 Proteins) signaling pathway.
Data (including data from studies using transgenic and knockout mice) suggest that Glp1/Glp1r (show GLP1R Proteins) signaling in insulin (show INS Proteins)-secreting cells plays important role in development of glucose intolerance in obesity; however, Glp1r (show GLP1R Proteins) is not required in insulin (show INS Proteins)-secreting cells for improvement in glucose intolerance after weight loss due to bariatric surgery (here, vertical sleeve gastrectomy).
Chronic stress accelerates DPP4-mediated GLP-1 degradation and alters plasma adiponectin, accelerating vascular senescence and impairing ischemia-induced neovascularization.
Data suggest that metabolism of glutamine (show GFPT1 Proteins) and related analogs by Gdh (show UGDH Proteins) in intestinal L-cells explains why Glp1 secretion, but not that of insulin (show INS Proteins) by pancreatic beta-cells, is activated by these secretagogues. (Gdh (show UGDH Proteins) = glutamate (show GRIN1 Proteins) dehydrogenase; Glp1 = glucagon-like peptide 1)
Glucokinase (show GCK Proteins) governs an alpha-cell metabolic pathway that suppresses secretion at or above normoglycemic levels; abnormal suppression of glucagon secretion deregulates hepatic glucose metabolism and, over time, induces a pre-diabetic phenotype.
in colonic crypt cultures, the GLP-1 secretion induced by such Gq + Gs GPR40 (show FFAR1 Proteins) agonists is indeed inhibited by blockers of both Gq and Gs and is eliminated by combining these.
Enteric GLP-1 activates NO production by enteric neurons that is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Gut (show GUSB Proteins) microbiota dysbiosis induces enteric neuropathy. Gut (show GUSB Proteins) microbiota dysbiosis is responsible for the GLP-1 resistance.
of glucagon-like peptide-1 in vagotomized mice may prevent VLDL overproduction and insulin (show INS Proteins) resistance induced by high-fat diet.
data demonstrate that cattle express proglucagon and glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (show GLP2R Proteins) mRNA primarily in small intestinal and colon tissues and increased nutrient intake increases ileal proglucagon mRNA and plasma glucagon-like peptide 2
Data suggest that casein, safflower oil, sucrose, and sweetening agent rebaudioside A stimulate GLP1 release/secretion from enteroendocrine cells. (GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1, a peptide fragment derived from proglucagon)
The patterns of colocalization of the K cell marker, glucagon-like insulinotropic peptide, and L cell markers, glucagon like peptide-1 and peptide YY, in enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine and colon of mouse and pig, were investigated.
The findings indicate that the brainstem preproglucagon neuronal system is highly conserved between rat and non-human primate
The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides. One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to glicentin, an active enteroglucagon.
, glucagon-like peptide 1
, glucagon-like peptide 2
, glucagon-like peptide I
, glucagon-like peptide-1
, preproglucagon B
, glucagon preproprotein
, preproglucagon A
, glucagon I
, proglucagon I