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Study found a protective effect of PACAP-38 (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) on oxidative stress damage in zebrafish hair cells, suggesting PACAP-38 (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) ability to prevent hair cells from apoptosis. PACAP-38 (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) treatment decreased the cleaved caspase-3 (show CASP3 ELISA Kits) level in the hair cells, but somewhat unexpectedly had no influence on p-38 MAPK (show MAPK1 ELISA Kits) pathway. PACAP-38 (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) treatment also rescued H2O2-induced reduction in movement.
PACAP might play dual roles in regulating follicle growth and maturation through different receptors located in different compartments.
These results suggest that, in fish, PACAP and PAC1-R may play a role in brain development.
The temporal and spatial expression pattern of the ghrh-pacap1 (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) transcript suggests that these hormones may modulate patterning during development.
zfPACAP38-2 is a potential ovarian factor that mediates gonadotropin actions in paracrine/autocrine manners, and its functional roles are likely, to some extent, related to the ovarian activin (show Actbeta ELISA Kits)/follistatin (show FST ELISA Kits) system.
Splice variants of pVPAC1-R are predominantly expressed in all tissues instead of the transcript encoding the full-length receptor, hinting that pVPAC2-R may play more important roles than pVPAC1-R in mediating VIP (show Vip ELISA Kits) and PACAP (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) actions.
In vitro-polarized macrophages by GM-CSF (show CSF2 ELISA Kits) (GM-MO), with a proinflammatory profile, expressed higher levels of VIP (show Vip ELISA Kits) receptors, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (show Vip ELISA Kits) receptors 1 and 2 (VPAC1 (show VIPR1 ELISA Kits) and VPAC2, respectively), than macrophages polarized by M-CSF (show CSF1 ELISA Kits) (M-MO) with anti-inflammatory activities. RA synovial macrophages, according to their GM-CSF (show CSF2 ELISA Kits)-like polarization state, expressed both VPAC1 (show VIPR1 ELISA Kits) and VPAC2.
Lower CpG methylation of VIPR2 in the saliva (show RAG1AP1 ELISA Kits) of children with ADHD.
The results reveal that more severe inflammation, based on high levels of IL-6 (show IL6 ELISA Kits), is associated with lower expression of VPAC1 (show VIPR1 ELISA Kits) and, conversely, with increased expression of VPAC2.
CD4 (show CD4 ELISA Kits)+ T cells in HIV infection show increased levels of expression of VPAC2
This study suggest that carriers of microduplication genotypes of VIPR2 are predisposed to SCZ in Han Chinese.
Monocytes from Sjogren's syndrome patients display increased vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 expression and impaired apoptotic cell phagocytosis.
Data indicate that VIP (show Vip ELISA Kits) and PACAP (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) increased macrophage resistance to HIV-1 replication by inducing the synthesis of beta-chemokines CCL3 (show CCL3 ELISA Kits) and CCL5 (show CCL5 ELISA Kits) and IL-10 (show IL10 ELISA Kits) following preferential activation of the receptors VPAC2 and PAC1 (show ADCYAP1R1 ELISA Kits).
This is the first study to suggest a role of VIPR2 in the genetic susceptibility to high myopia. EGR1 (show EGR1 ELISA Kits), JUN (show JUN ELISA Kits), FOS and VIP (show Vip ELISA Kits) are unlikely to be important in predisposing humans to high myopia.
Genetic testing for VIPR2-LCR-associated inversions should be performed on available cohorts of psychiatric patients to evaluate their potential pathogenic role
Conclude that VPAC2/PAC1 (show ADCYAP1R1 ELISA Kits) receptors require NO in series to effect cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans.
Results demonstrate critical protective roles for PACAP (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) and the VPAC2 receptor against autoimmunity, promoting the expansion and maintenance of the Treg pool.
The results suggest that caveolin-1 (show CAV1 ELISA Kits) plays an important role in VPAC2 receptor internalization and desensitization.
Cumulus cells express PACAP (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits) and its receptors PAC1-R and VPAC2-R.
VPAC2R mRNA expression showed a nonsignificant tendency to increase on day 7 after ischemia induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion.
The loss of adrenal clock gene rhythm in the VPAC2 receptor knockout mice after transfer into constant darkness was accompanied by disappearance of rhythmicity in Star mRNA expression and serum corticosterone concentration.
Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis significantly decreased VPAC2 receptor expression in the urothelium & detrusor of both WT and NGF (show NGFB ELISA Kits)-OE mice
The circadian clock, not ambient light level, regulates Vipr2 protein localization, since VAPC2R plays a role in signaling at all times of day.
Data support the notion that both VPAC1 (show VIPR1 ELISA Kits) and VPAC2 receptors are dynamically regulated by Ikaros (show IKZF1 ELISA Kits), a master transcriptional regulator for thymocyte differentiation, during early thymic development.
results support that decline in VIP (show Vip ELISA Kits)/VPAC local levels may influence survival/apoptosis intracellular set point in NOD acinar cells and their clearance, contributing to gland homeostasis loss in a model of Sjogren's syndrome
Toll-like receptor 4 (show TLR4 ELISA Kits) and 5 stimulation differentially regulates vasoactive intestinal peptide (show Vip ELISA Kits) type 2 receptor in macrophages
This gene encodes a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide, a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase.
vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2
, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor type 2
, histidine-isoleucine receptor
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide
, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 2
, vasoactive intestingal polypeptide receptor type 2
, VPAC2 receptor
, VIP-specific receptor
, gastric VPAC2 receptor
, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 2-like
, vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor 2
, PACAP type III receptor
, VIP and PACAP receptor 2
, helodermin-preferring VIP receptor
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type III receptor
, VIP receptor subtype 2
, vasopressive intestinal peptide receptor 2