Western Blot: 1/500 - 1/1000. Immunohistochemistry: 1/50 - 1/200. Immunoprecipitation: 1/50 - 1/200. Other applications not tested. Optimal dilutions are dependent on conditions and should be determined by the user.
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 α and β (GSK-3alpha, beta) are serine/threonine kinases that regulate metabolic enzymes and transcription factors, which are responsible for coordinating processes such as glycogen synthesis and cell adhesion. GSK-3beta activity is also required for nuclear activity of Rel dimers, which mediate an anti-apoptotic response to TNFalpha in mice. GSK-3 catalytic kinase activity is controlled through differential phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues, which have an inhibitory effect, and tyrosine residues, which have an activating effect. Growth factor stimulation of mammalian cells expressing GSK-3alpha and GSK-3beta induces phosphorylation of Ser 21 and Ser 9, respectively through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-protein kinase B (PKB) dependent pathway, thereby enhancing proliferative signals. Additionally, GSK-3 physically associates with cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates Ser 21 of GSK-3alpha or Ser 9 of GSK-3beta and inactivates both forms.Synonyms: Factor A, GSK-3 alpha, GSK3A, Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha