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Cyclic AMP (show APRT Proteins) (cAMP), a secondary messenger responsible for various physiological processes regulates cell metabolism by activating Protein kinase A (PKA) and by targeting exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC (show RAPGEF3 Proteins)). EPAC (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) is present in two isoforms EPAC1 (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) and EPAC2, which exhibit different tissue distribution and is involved in GDP/GTP (show AK3 Proteins) exchange along with activating Rap1 (show RABGEF1 Proteins)- and Rap2 (show RAP2A Proteins)-mediated signaling pathways.
Study identifies Epac2-Rap1 signaling as a novel feedback mechanism in the heart, which controls mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.
rs17746510, one of the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RAPGEF4 associated with cognitive decline in Chinese Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, was significantly correlated with ap (show RAPGEF3 Proteins)athy and mood disturbance
This review focus is on the function of Epac (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) in the heart. Accumulating evidence has revealed that both Epac1 (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) and Epac2 play important roles in the structure and function of the heart under physiological and pathological conditions. [review]
Data show that Epac2 is activated by cAMP and changes its structure. It is involved in cAMP-mediated signal transduction through activation of the Ras-like small GTPase (show RAP2B Proteins) and is expressed mainly in brain, neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues. [review]
Identified a conserved nuclear pore localisation signal (NPLS; amino acids 764-838 of EPAC1 (show RAPGEF3 Proteins)) in the catalytic domains of the cAMP-sensors, EPAC1 (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) and EPAC2A. EPAC1 (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) and EPAC2, display distinct subcellular distributions.
CALR (show CALR Proteins) regulated by EPAC2 in endometrial glandular epithelial cells is critical for the expression of LIF (show LIF Proteins) and PTGS2 (show PTGS2 Proteins)-mediated production of PGE2 through cAMP signaling.
Follow-up replication analyses in up to an additional 21,345 participants identified three new fasting plasma glucose loci reaching genome-wide significance in or near PDK1 (show PDK1 Proteins)-RAPGEF4, KANK1, and IGF1R (show IGF1R Proteins).
EPAC1 and EPAC2 are critical signaling intermediates in osteoclast differentiation that permit RANKL-stimulated NFkB nuclear translocation and actin rearrangements
data show the expression of E (show RAPGEF3 Proteins)PAC is blunted in HPRT-deficient neuron-like cell lines (show HPRT1 Proteins)and fibroblast cells from Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) (show RAPGEF3 Proteins)patie (show RABGEF1 Proteins)nts; propose that the alterations in (show HPRT1 Proteins)EPAC/RAP1 signaling and cell migration in HPRT deficiency are crucial for neuro-developmental events that may contribute to neurological dysfunctions in LNS
Epac2(-/-) mice exhibited a wide range of mood disorders, including anxiety and depression with learning and memory deficits in contextual and cued fear-conditioning tests without affecting Epac1 (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) expression or PKA activity.
PACAP (show ADCYAP1 Proteins) could trigger astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells via Epac2 activation.
Epac2, but not Epac1 (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) has a role in decreasing severity of ischemic retinopathy after retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury
cAMP-GEF (show ARHGEF2 Proteins) II plays a key role in hippocampal functions including behavioral flexibility.
data suggest that cAMP elevation uses an Epac2-dependent pathway to promote transmitter release, and that Epac2 is required to maintain the readily releasable pool at Mossy Fiber synapses in the hippocampus.
Epac1 (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) primarily is capable of inhibiting remodeling processes, whereas Epac2 primarily increases inflammatory processes in vivo
data show the expression EPAC (show RAPGEF3 Proteins) is altered in the cortex, striatum and midbrain of HPRT (show HPRT1 Proteins) knockout mouse; propose that the alterations in EPAC (show RAPGEF3 Proteins)/RAP1 (show TERF2IP Proteins) signaling and cell migration in HPRT (show HPRT1 Proteins) deficiency are crucial for neuro-developmental events that may contribute to neurological dysfunctions in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
DNA methylation (show HELLS Proteins) of alternative promoters directs tissue specific expression of Epac2 isoforms.
Epac2 localization is dynamically controlled by cAMP as well as by Ca(2+)-mediated activation of Ras.
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAP1A, RAP1B and RAP2A small GTPases that is activated by binding cAMP. Seems not to activate RAB3A. Involved in cAMP-dependent, PKA- independent exocytosis through interaction with RIMS2 (By similarity).
Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 4
, rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 4
, rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 4-like
, EPAC 2
, RAP guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) 4
, cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor II
, exchange factor directly activated by cAMP 2
, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 2
, putative protein product of Nbla00496
, cAMP-dependent Rap1 guanine-nucleotide exchange factor
, cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor IIB
, epac 2