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Inhibition of endogenous miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-30b-3p and miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-30d-5p enhanced AR expression and androgen-independent cell growth.
Study highlights how androgen receptor itself functions is an important step in elucidating the molecular basis for androgen-independent prostate tumors.Translocation of AR to improper gene promoter elements or DNA-binding sites can result in an alteration in gene expression and thus normal prostate function. AR regulation of mir (show MLXIP Proteins)-206 is an important mechanism for prostate tumor progression. [review]
The progesterone receptor (show PGR Proteins) B (PRB (show RB1 Proteins)) and androgen Receptor (AR) mRNA levels were highest in tumors.
Findings provide the first evidence for a link between the androgen receptor gene and moral judgment and highlight the role of androgens in moral foundations.
the deregulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression is a driver of chromatin relaxation and that AR/androgen-regulated bromodomain-containing proteins (BRDs) mediate this effect.
Differential expression of miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-34b and androgen receptor are associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness in African-Americans and Caucasians.
Studies indicate that androgen receptor (AR) signaling differentially regulates proliferation of prostatic epithelia cells through mechanisms involving stromal/epithelial interactions.
These findings suggest that calpain and AR-V7 may serve as important biomarkers in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer , and targeting calpain and AR-V7 may provide a new approach in overcoming docetaxel-resistance.
DNAH8 has a role in androgen receptor activity and prostate cancer progression
A novel nonsense mutation in androgen receptor confers resistance to CYP17A1 (show CYP17A1 Proteins) inhibitor treatment in prostate cancer.
Data (including data from studies using transgenic/knockout mice) suggest that AR in insulin (show INS Proteins)-secreting cells is involved in insulin (show INS Proteins) secretion and inflammation; AR-deficient insulin (show INS Proteins)-secreting cells exhibit altered expression of genes involved in inflammation and insulin (show INS Proteins) secretion demonstrating importance of androgen action in functions of insulin (show INS Proteins)-secreting cells.
Cyclic mechanical stretch modulated the proliferation of C2C12 cells, which may be attributed to the alterations of AR via IGF-1 (show IGF1 Proteins)-PI3K/Akt (show AKT1 Proteins) and IGF-1 (show IGF1 Proteins)-MAPK (p38 (show MAPK1 Proteins), ERK1/2) pathways in C2C12 cells.
We show AR expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contributes to the tumor-promoting abilities that CAFs exert on epithelial prostate cancer cells. Further, we found that decreased AR expression in CAFs is also associated with an increase in stem cell marker gene expression in prostate cancer epithelial cells.
in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (show MOK Proteins), enhances lung and liver metastases, while suppressing lymphatic metastasis
Glandular epithelial AR inactivation (with persistent stromal AR action) enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology possibly by downregulating progesterone receptor (show PGR Proteins) expression in the uterus.
CDK2 (show CDK2 Proteins) phosphorylates polyQ-AR specifically at Ser (show SIGLEC1 Proteins)(96). Phosphorylation of polyQ-AR by CDK2 (show CDK2 Proteins) increased protein stabilization and toxicity and is negatively regulated by the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A signaling pathway in spinobulbar muscular atrophy.
experimental manipulation of the prenatal androgen level, by blocking the androgen receptor with flutamide or activating the androgen receptor with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), leads to changes in the length of the fingers of all paws in males and females.
Silencing of androgen receptor rescues the muscular spinal atrophy transgenic mice.
Taken together, our findings provide evidence for a novel crosstalk and a crossregulation between ING1 and ING2 in regulating androgen receptor-mediated transactivation and suggest that ING2 acts as a novel corepressor that inhibits AR signaling, prostate cancer cell growth, and migration.
Prostate 5aR1 levels were positively correlated with adjusted prostate most severe lesion scores. Downregulation of androgen receptor and 5alpha-reductase 2, along with upregulation of 5a-reductase 1 in tumors may promote prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer development in TRAMP (show DPT Proteins) mice
substantial up-regulation of androgen receptor expression during trophoblast giant cell differentiation suggests that androgens may be related to this process and are active products of bovine placental steroidogenesis
no association between the AR CAG polymorphism and the relative risk of prostate cancer in white Brazilian individuals with a CAG repeat (show CELF3 Proteins)
FSHR (show FSHR Proteins) is specifically regulated through androgen receptor in granulosa cells
Roles of IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) and the estrogen, androgen and IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) receptors in estradiol-17beta- and trenbolone acetate-stimulated proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells.
In GD20 and PD2 (show PAF1 Proteins) males we found the reduction of the luminal compartment, inflammatory changes, decreased androgen receptor and increased Cx43 (show GJA1 Proteins) expression
Data suggest that signal transduction involving androgen receptor is involved in apoptosis of granulosa cells (as seen in follicular atresia).
Pig ejaculated spermatozoa express androgen receptor.
Androgen receptor (AR) and Wilms' tumor gene 1 expression dramatically decreased after heat treatment in Sertoli cells
Sertoli cell maturation during puberty in the stallion was accompanied by a reduced expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (show AMH Proteins) and its receptor, arrest of cell proliferation, increased expression of androgen receptor
The vesicular gland of castrated goats showed significantly lower AR and COX-2 immuno-expression than intact goats indicating that both AR and COX-2 are androgen dependent.
The androgen receptor gene is more than 90 kb long and codes for a protein that has 3 major functional domains: the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, and androgen-binding domain. The protein functions as a steroid-hormone activated transcription factor. Upon binding the hormone ligand, the receptor dissociates from accessory proteins, translocates into the nucleus, dimerizes, and then stimulates transcription of androgen responsive genes. This gene contains 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments that encode polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the N-terminal transactivation domain of its protein. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract causes spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). Mutations in this gene are also associated with complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS). Two alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.
androgen nuclear receptor variant 2
, dihydrotestosterone receptor
, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4
, testicular feminization
, androgen receptor (Testicular feminization), same as Tfm
, androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease)
, androgen receptor AR
, Ar beta
, androgen receptor
, prostate androgen receptor