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Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families.
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These findings demonstrate GSTA4 activation during 4-HNE (show ELANE Proteins)-induced neoplastic transformation in colorectal carcinogenesis. GSTA4 is a potential surrogate biomarker for CRC (show CALR Proteins) screening and should provide novel approaches for chemoprevention.
Decreased gene expression of GSTA4 is associated with drug resistance in cervical cancer.
Data indicate that steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1 (show NR5A1 Proteins)) and glutathione S-transferase A (GSTA (show GSTa2 Proteins)) family genes (hGSTA1-hGSTA4) are involved in steroidogenesis.
GSTA4 down-regulation and the concomitant increase in 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in muscle are indicative of susceptibility to infection in individuals with severe thermal injuries.
Data show that mandatory overexpression of hGSTA4 by transient transfection in KYSE30 cells and attenuation of HNE (show ELANE Proteins)-induced EGFR (show EGFR Proteins) phosphorylation.
analysis of four novel mutations that change the function of leukotriene C(4) synthase (show LTC4S Proteins) and are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke
Gsta4/GSTA4 is a novel susceptibility gene for NMSC that affects risk in both mice and humans.
Results indicate that downregulation of GSTA4 in adipose tissue leads to increased protein carbonylation, ROS (show ROS1 Proteins) production, and mitochondrial dysfunction and may contribute to the development of insulin (show INS Proteins) resistance and type 2 diabetes.
GSTA4-4 exploits the hydroxyl group of either 4R- or 4S-hydroxynonenal (HNE (show ELANE Proteins)), while specifically binding HNE (show ELANE Proteins) and glutathione (GSH) to maintain high catalytic efficiency linked with stereoselective product formation for both enantiomeric substrates.
null mice had a significantly lower survival time than wild-type controls when chronically treated with relatively low doses of paraquat, a finding consistent with a role of glutathione transferase A4-4 in the defense against oxidative stress
Data define a role for GSTA4-4 in buffering hepatic oxidative stress associated with chronic alcohol consumption and that this GST isoform plays an important role in protecting against carbonylation of mitochondrial proteins.
although loss of GSTA4-4 led to enhanced susceptibility of cardiac mitochondria to radiation-induced loss of morphology, cardiac function was preserved in Gsta4-null mice
These results indicate that 4-HNE (show ELANE Proteins) significantly contributes to the mechanisms of tubule injury and fibrosis and that these effects can be inhibited by the enhanced expression of GSTA4-4.
In the absence of GSTA4-4 to modulate both physiological and pathological 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE (show ELANE Proteins)) levels, the adaptive NRF (show NKRF Proteins)-E2-related (Nrf)2 (show NFE2L2 Proteins) factor pathway may be primed to contribute to a preconditioned cardiac phenotype in the Gsta4-null mouse.
The naturally occurring variation in Gsta4 expression in rats affects neurodegeneration after TBI. Further studies are needed to explore if genetic variability in Gsta4 can be associated to outcome also in human TBI.
2-APB (show RNPEP Proteins) treatment restrained nasal lavage fluid LTC4, ECP (show ECP Proteins), ovalbumin (show OVA Proteins)-specific IgE, and IL-4 (show IL4 Proteins) and their corresponding mRNAs in the previously mentioned tissues of treated mice in comparison with those of control ones.
mGsta4-null mice, in which 4-HNE (show ELANE Proteins) detoxification is impaired, have an extended life span.
in regenerating hepatocytes, several GST isoforms are induced and that cytokines TNFalpha (show TNF Proteins) and IL-6 (show IL6 Proteins) and survival factor EGF (show EGF Proteins) positively regulate mGSTA4 via survival signaling pathways.
Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes are involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, which are located in a cluster on chromosome 6, are highly related and encode enzymes with glutathione peroxidase activity that function in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products. Reactive electrophiles produced by oxidative metabolism have been linked to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cataract formation, and atherosclerosis.
GST class-alpha member 4
, S-(hydroxyalkyl)glutathione lyase A4
, glutathione S-alkyltransferase A4
, glutathione S-aralkyltransferase A4
, glutathione S-aryltransferase A4
, glutathione S-transferase A4
, glutathione S-transferase A4-4
, glutathione transferase A4-4
, GST 8-8
, GST A4-4
, GST K
, GST Yk
, glutathione S-transferase Yk
, glutathione S-transferase alpha-4
, glutathione transferase
, glutathione S-transferase A3
, glutathione S-transferase class-alpha
, glutathione S-transferase alpha class A4
, glutathione S-transferase 5.7
, glutathione S-transferase alpha 4