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Report the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the porcine precursor of endothelin-2.
EDN2 expression in left internal mammary arteries depends on tissue harvesting technique.
Overexpression of Edn2 in the mouse retina causes an excess of tip cells and inhibits vascular growth. Overexpression of Edn2 in the brain and skin had no effect, but vascular development was inhibited in midgestation mouse embryos.
Endothelin 2 and endothelin receptor type B (show EDNRB Proteins) may be a regenerative pathway for central nervous system myelination and remyelination.
Studies revealed hypermethylation of EDN2 and EDN3 (show EDN3 Proteins) genes in human primary colon cancers and in a panel of human colon cancer cell lines. Epigenetic inactivation of ET-2 and ET-3 (show EDN3 Proteins) occurs frequently in both rat and human colon cancers.
plasma levels of big ET-2, and big ET-3 (show EDN3 Proteins) are markedly increased in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis
In granulosa lutein cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome, endothelin-2 mRNA was reduced as compared with normally ovulating women
although endothelin 2 does not appear to be an independent prognostic marker, there is evidence of a putative role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (show MOK Proteins) progression
EDN3 (show EDN3 Proteins), in contrast to EDN1 (show EDN1 Proteins) and EDN2, may act as natural tumour suppressor in the human mammary gland
Endothelin-2 is a macrophage chemoattractant. ET-2 expression by tumors may modulate the behavior of macrophages such that activated cells accumulate in areas of hypoxia.
Endothelin-2 is a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor for breast tumor cells
Follicle rupture and fertility were significantly impaired in the absence of ovarian Edn2 expression.
The results demonstrated that long-term hyperglycaemia in conjunction with VEGF (show VEGFA Proteins)-driven retinal neovascularization increased Edn2 serum concentration suggesting Edn2 might be a candidate biomarker for vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy.
EDN2 is necessary for normal ovulation and corpus luteum formation.
Endothelin-2 signaling in the neural retina promotes the endothelial tip cell state and inhibits angiogenesis.
Edn2-mediated mechanisms that contribute to PR survival
ET-2 is critical for the growth and survival of postnatal mice and plays important roles in energy homeostasis, thermoregulation, and the maintenance of lung morphology and function.
We conclude that constitutive overexpression of Norrin (show NDP Proteins) protects photoreceptors from light damage, an effect that is mediated by Wnt (show WNT2 Proteins)/beta-catenin (show CTNNB1 Proteins) and EDN2 signaling and involves neurotrophic activities of BDNF (show BDNF Proteins).
ET-2 acts in a cooperative manner with ET-1 (show EDN1 Proteins), giving to the villus the straight enough to withstand mechanical stress.
Since endothelin 2 is potently vasoconstrictive and was produced by microglia/macrophages, our data provide what we believe to be a novel link between these cell types and vascular dysfunction in glaucoma.
These data indicate that ET-2 is a direct target gene of Hedgehog (show SHH Proteins) signaling in basal cell carcinoma.
Report cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and organ distribution of horse preproendothelin-2.
This gene encodes a member of the endothelin protein family of secretory vasoconstrictive peptides. The preproprotein is processed to a short mature form which functions as a ligand for the endothelin receptors that initiate intracellular signaling events. This gene product is involved in a wide range of biological processes, such as hypertension and ovulation.
, endothelin 2
, preproendothelin 2
, vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide
, Endothelin isopeptide 2
, vasoactive intestinal contractor