Modern molecular biology has opened up a whole new range of techniques and possibilities to scientists working in the different fields of the classical plant sciences like plant physiology, breeding or pathology. Genomic information on plant model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana or Oryza Sativa has revolutionised insight into plant genomics. Gene (over)expression and knockout are helpful tools to improve our understanding of the complexity of the plant transcriptome and interactions between genes and gene products.
With the increasing speed in next-generation DNA sequencing, plant researchers do have more and more access to neglected plant species and their sequences. Molecular marker technology has accelerated the selection of new plant varieties with many favourable traits. Design, development and management of transgenic plants are facilitated - a huge step in state-of-the-art plant breeding.
Antibodies-online offers a broad range of products suitable for detection of plant as well as algae cell targets. Solely for Arabidopsis thaliana more thanare available. Additionally customers can find here antibodies, proteins and kits for other well-studied organisms like Zea mays, Nicotiana Tabacum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Pisum Sativum or Spinacia oleracea. But also less explored organisms are covered with useful markers for the detection of plant specific targets like photosystem I and II, the cell wall, biotic and abiotic plant stressors or phytohormones.
Browse our list of plant targets below and find antibodies, proteins or ELISA kits for your research object or discover our extensive selection of products against plant hormones!
Antibodies, Proteins and ELISA Kits Against Plant Targets
Phytohormones (also known as plant hormones) are biochemical active organic signal molecules which regulate and coordinate growth and development of plants. They are also referred to as growth regulators.
Phytohormones are synthesized only in extremely small amounts (10-6 to 10-5 mol/L) differing from tissue to tissues as well as developmental state. The ratio between certain phytohormones often is more important than the concentration itself. The biosynthesis of plant hormones within plant tissues is often diffuse and not always localized. Plants use, unlike animals, more passive means to move chemicals around their bodies. There are several ways for phytohormones to reach their destination, from cell to cell (Auxine), via vascular tissue (Cytokine) or in between the cells (Ethylene). Plant hormones regulate in close interaction between each other growth and development processes in targeted cells locally by either stimulation or inhibition. Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants but in algae, showing similar functions.
Below you can find a selection of antibodies directed against different plant hormones. The antibodies are manufactured by our main supplier for plant targets Agrisera, a company specialized to assist researchers who work in botany, plant physiology, agricultural science, green biotechnology, and food and crop monitoring.
Antibodies Against Phytohormones
Auxins are a group of growth regulators that positively influence cell enlargement, promote apical dominance, bud formation and lateral root development. The hormone delays senescence. Higher concentration of auxin acts as growth inhibitor and even is toxic to plants; therefore synthetic auxin can be used as herbicide.
Synthesis of auxin occurs dominantly in young differenting and growing tissue especially in the shoot, young leaves, developing seeds and in the root meristem. The transport of auxins is directed and influences cell elongation by stimulating wall-loosening factors. auxin is the primary driver of phototropism as well as gravitropism.
Cytokinins promote cell division in the roots and shoots of a plant. Cytokinins acts as an antagonist to Auxin with opposite effects in general. The ratio between the two phytohormones decides on growth focus. Equal levels lead to callus formation, more cytokinin induces growth of shoot buds, while more auxin induces root formation. Exceptions are cell divison and apical dominance (lateral bud growth) where they act together. Recent publications describe the function of cytokinin in plant pathogenesis.
ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, most of the times by inhibition. In conctrast to other plant hormone groups ABA is only a single acid.
ABA is synthesized in all plant parts, e.g., in response to water stress. ABA then translocates to the leaves, where it rapidly alters the osmotic potential of stomatal guard cells, causing them to shrink and stomata to close in order to prevent additional water loss.
Next to stress response in general ABA is involved in bud dormancy, the inhibition of seed germination (as antagonist to gibberellin), fruit ripening and cell growth. Additionally enzymes needed for photosynthesis are downregulated by ABA.
There are currently more than 100 known Gibberellins. Gibberellins have a number of effects on plant development. They can trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, increase seed germination rate and determine sex expression and grain development. Growth regulation by gibberellins is concentration dependant, high concentrations will have the opposite effect.
It is of significance in the grape-growing industry as a hormone to induce the production of larger bundles and bigger grapes, as growth replicator in the cherry industry grapes and allows for clementines to produce a full crop of fruit without seeds.
Brassinosteroids are a class of polyhydroxysteroids regulating the development of plants. They show structural similarities with cholesterol, the precursor of animal steroids. It is assumed that the hormone is expressed ubiquitary.
The steroids increase cell expansion and elongation as well as vascular differentiation and pollen tube formation. In leaves brassinosteroids promote senescence and induce ethylene synthesis which leads to epinasty.
The hormones increase tolerance to high temperature and salt stress. Furthermore it protects shoot and root length. In summary, counteracting both abiotic and biotic stress increases importance of brassinosteroids in agriculture. The effects of brassinosteroids lead to improvement of quality and yields of horticultural crops and do not interfere with the environment as pesticides do.
Jasmonates are lipid-based hormone signals, synthesized in the chloroplast membrane. They are important in defense against herbivores and as response to biotic and abiotic stress. A part of jasmonates can act as communicator between plants, they are released in order to synchronize direct and indirect defences.
Furthermore the plant hormone inhibits root growth and promotes accumulation of storage proteins. Jasmonates can interact with many kinases and transcription factors associated with senescence. The hormone interferes in defense and development with abscisic acid and ethylene in order to optimize defense against pathogens.
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