Products for Plant-specific Targets

Modern molecular biology has opened up a whole new range of techniques and possibilities to scientists working in the different fields of the classical plant sciences like plant physiology, breeding or pathology. Genomic information on plant model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana or Oryza Sativa has revolutionised insight into plant genomics. Gene (over)expression and knockout are helpful tools to improve our understanding of the complexity of the plant transcriptome and interactions between genes and gene products.

With the increasing speed in next-generation DNA sequencing, plant researchers do have more and more access to neglected plant species and their sequences. Molecular marker technology has accelerated the selection of new plant varieties with many favourable traits. Design, development and management of transgenic plants are facilitated - a huge step in state-of-the-art plant breeding.

Antibodies-online offers a broad range of products suitable for detection of plant as well as algae cell targets. Solely for Arabidopsis thaliana more than 3200 products are available. Additionally customers can find here antibodies, proteins and kits for other well-studied organisms like Zea mays, Nicotiana Tabacum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Pisum Sativum or Spinacia oleracea. But also less explored organisms are covered with useful markers for the detection of plant specific targets like photosystem I and II, the cell wall, biotic and abiotic plant stressors or phytohormones.

Browse our list of plant targets below and find antibodies or proteins for your research object right now!


Phytohormones

Phytohormones (also known as plant hormones) are biochemical active organic signal molecules which regulate and coordinate growth and development of plants. They are also referred to as growth regulators.

Phytohormones are synthesized only in extremely small amounts (10-6 to 10-5 mol/L) differing from tissue to tissues as well as developmental state. The ratio between certain phytohormones often is more important than the concentration itself. The biosynthesis of plant hormones within plant tissues is often diffuse and not always localized. Plants use, unlike animals, more passive means to move chemicals around their bodies. There are several ways for phytohormones to reach their destination, from cell to cell (Auxine), via vascular tissue (Cytokine) or in between the cells (Ethylene). Plant hormones regulate in close interaction between each other growth and development processes in targeted cells locally by either stimulation or inhibition. Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants but in algae, showing similar functions.

Below you can find a selection of antibodies directed against different plant hormones. The antibodies are manufactured by our main supplier for plant targets Agrisera, a company specialized to assist researchers who work in botany, plant physiology, agricultural science, green biotechnology, and food and crop monitoring.

Auxins

Target Product Number
Auxin-Binding Protein 4 ABIN4966112
Chalcone Synthase (CHS) ABIN4966130
Indole 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) ABIN125899
Indole 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) ABIN334624
IAA tracer (AP) ABIN618931
Indole-3-Butyric Acid ABIN1990928
Indole-3-Butyric Acid ABIN4966448

Cytokinin

Target Product Number
Cis-Zeatin Riboside ABIN334603
Dihydrozeatin Riboside ABIN334600
Kinetin Riboside ABIN334622
Meta-Topolin Riboside ABIN334601
N6-Benzyladenosine ABIN1110368
N6-Isopentenyladenosine ABIN334599
Ortho-Topolin Riboside ABIN334602
Trans-Zeatin Riboside ABIN334598

Auxins are a group of growth regulators that positively influence cell enlargement, promote apical dominance, bud formation and lateral root development. The hormone delays senescence. Higher concentration of auxin acts as growth inhibitor and even is toxic to plants; therefore synthetic auxin can be used as herbicide.

Synthesis of auxin occurs dominantly in young differenting and growing tissue especially in the shoot, young leaves, developing seeds and in the root meristem. The transport of auxins is directed and influences cell elongation by stimulating wall-loosening factors. auxin is the primary driver of phototropism as well as gravitropism.

Cytokinins promote cell division in the roots and shoots of a plant. Cytokinins acts as an antagonist to Auxin with opposite effects in general. The ratio between the two phytohormones decides on growth focus. Equal levels lead to callus formation, more cytokinin induces growth of shoot buds, while more auxin induces root formation. Exceptions are cell divison and apical dominance (lateral bud growth) where they act together. Recent publications describe the function of cytokinin in plant pathogenesis.

Absisic Acid

Target Product Number
Abscisic acid insensitive 2 (ABI2) ABIN4966066
Abscisic Acid (ABA) ABIN125901
ABA ABIN334625
Abscisic acid BSA (ABA-BSA) ABIN1110368
ABI1 (Abl-Interactor 1) ABIN1720813
Abscisic acid insensitive 5 (ABI5) ABIN4966067
C-MYC ABIN3197482
Abscisic Acid Receptor PYR1 ABIN4966068
Ser/Thr-protein kinase SnRK ABIN4966319
Ser/Thr-protein kinase SnRK2.6 ABIN4966320

Gibberellins

Target Product Number
Vacuolar Calcium-Binding Protein-Related (AtCCaP1) ABIN349667
Ent-Kaurene Oxidase (GA3) ABIN125900
Gibberellic acid BSA conjugate (GA3-BSA) ABIN619730
DELLA Protein GAI ABIN4966148
Gibberellin Receptor GID1C ABIN4966169
F-BOX protein GID2 ABIN496613
Solute Carrier Family 50 (RAG1AP1) ABIN1720802
DELLA Protein RGL2 ABIN49666294

ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, most of the times by inhibition. In conctrast to other plant hormone groups ABA is only a single acid.

ABA is synthesized in all plant parts, e.g., in response to water stress. ABA then translocates to the leaves, where it rapidly alters the osmotic potential of stomatal guard cells, causing them to shrink and stomata to close in order to prevent additional water loss.

Next to stress response in general ABA is involved in bud dormancy, the inhibition of seed germination (as antagonist to gibberellin), fruit ripening and cell growth. Additionally enzymes needed for photosynthesis are downregulated by ABA.

There are currently more than 100 known Gibberellins. Gibberellins have a number of effects on plant development. They can trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, increase seed germination rate and determine sex expression and grain development. Growth regulation by gibberellins is concentration dependant, high concentrations will have the opposite effect.

It is of significance in the grape-growing industry as a hormone to induce the production of larger bundles and bigger grapes, as growth replicator in the cherry industry grapes and allows for clementines to produce a full crop of fruit without seeds.

Brassinosteroids

Target Product Number
BCL2-Antagonist/killer 1 (BAK1) ABIN349667
Brassinosteroid Insensitive 1 (BRI1) ABIN1720812
Brassinazole-Resistant 1 Protein (BZR1) ABIN4966119
14-3-3 GRF ABIN1720824

Jasmonates

Target Product Number
Coronate Insensitive 1 (COI1) ABIN4966142
Jasmonic acid (JA) ABIN4966215
Jasmonate ZIM-Domain Protein 1 (JAZ1) ABIN4966214
Late embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA3) ABIN4966219
Natriuretic Peptide Receptor (NPR1) ABIN4966262

Brassinosteroids are a class of polyhydroxysteroids regulating the development of plants. They show structural similarities with cholesterol, the precursor of animal steroids. It is assumed that the hormone is expressed ubiquitary.

The steroids increase cell expansion and elongation as well as vascular differentiation and pollen tube formation. In leaves brassinosteroids promote senescence and induce ethylene synthesis which leads to epinasty.

The hormones increase tolerance to high temperature and salt stress. Furthermore it protects shoot and root length. In summary, counteracting both abiotic and biotic stress increases importance of brassinosteroids in agriculture. The effects of brassinosteroids lead to improvement of quality and yields of horticultural crops and do not interfere with the environment as pesticides do.

Jasmonates are lipid-based hormone signals, synthesized in the chloroplast membrane. They are important in defense against herbivores and as response to biotic and abiotic stress. A part of jasmonates can act as communicator between plants, they are released in order to synchronize direct and indirect defences.

Furthermore the plant hormone inhibits root growth and promotes accumulation of storage proteins. Jasmonates can interact with many kinases and transcription factors associated with senescence. The hormone interferes in defense and development with abscisic acid and ethylene in order to optimize defense against pathogens.

Ethylene

Target Product Number
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase alpha (ACACA) ABIN1720806
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase 7 (ACS7) ABIN4966044
Ethylene Insensitive 2 (EIN2) ABIN4966315

Salicylic acid

Target Product Number
Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 (EDS1) ABIN4966158
Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A/guanylate Cyclase A (NPR1) ABIN4966262

Ethylene is produced from the majority of cells in higher plants. Developmental and environmental factors regulate production of the plant hormone. It acts at trace levels throughout the life of the plant by stimulating or regulating the ripening of fruit, the opening of flowers, and the abscission of leaves.

Abiotic and biotic stress and certain plant compound like auxin induces ethylene production. Together with salicylic acid and jasmonates the hormone separates areas affected by herbivores and initiates plant response. The gas can signal other compounds and plants response to the attack as well.

Ethylen is responsible for epinasty in leaves and the seedling triple response, thickening and shortening of hypocotyl with pronounced apical hook.

Salicylic acid is a phenolic phytohormone acting in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. The hormone plays an important regulatory role in case of abiotic stress like drought, cold or heat and osmotic pressure.

Salicylic acid helps to resist herbivores by inducing the production of pathogenesis-related proteins. This defense mechanism is transferred to other parts of the plant and via methyl salicylate even to nearby ones. The release of methyl salicylate may function as an aid in the recruitment of beneficial insects to kill the herbivorous insects.