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Cav1.1 is specified for the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscles, and has been a prototype in the structural investigations of Cav channels. This article summarized the recent advances in the structural elucidation of Cav1.1 and the mechanistic insights derived from the 3.6 A structure obtained using single-particle, electron cryomicroscopy.
he ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) is mainly expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle and is a calcium release channel which is coupled to the dihydropyridine receptor (CACNA1S) in the T-tubule of the sarcolemma.
V876E mutation generates a gating pore current that carries strong resting Na(+) inward currents in physiological conditions that are likely responsible for the severe hypokalemic periodic paralysis associated with this mutation.
review of the pharmacogenetics and pathophysiology of CACNA1S mutations in malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 5 (MHS5); several mutations are known to be risk factors for increased susceptibility; at present, one or at most six CACNA1S mutations display significant linkage or association either to clinically diagnosed MH or to MHS
Study used structure modeling and MD simulations to predict pathogenic omega-currents in CaV1.1 and CaV1.3 Ca(2+) channels bearing several S4 charge mutations: omega-currents conducted in resting state, but not during voltage-sensing domain activation. Mechanism responsible depends on the number of charges in S4, the position of the mutated S4 charge and countercharges, and the nature of the replacing amino acid.
Study identified by exome sequencing both recessive and dominant CACNA1S mutations as a cause of a congenital myopathy characterized by peculiar morphological hallmarks in a cohort of 11 patients from 7 families.
whole-exome next-generation sequencing was used to identify a mutation in the CACNA1S gene, R900S, which is a rare mutation associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis; study provides further evidence for the phenotypic variation and pharmacogenomics of hypokalemic periodic paralysis
These results provide new insights into the role of muscle-specific proteins on the structural arrangement of alpha1S intracellular loops and point to a new conformational effect of the beta1a subunit in supporting skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling.
CACNA1S and SCN4A mutations are relatively rare in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis
The authors found one and three rare variants of unknown significance in CACNA1S in the Malignant Hyperthermia and Exertional Heat cohorts
Defects in the genes coding for the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor and alpha 1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (CACNA1S) have been identified as causative for malignant hyperthermia.
Aberrant splicing of Cav 1.1 may alter intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in myotonic dystrophy 1 and 2 myotubes. The differing dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) handling in DM1 and DM2 may explain their distinct sarcolemmal hyperexcitabilities.
Exome sequencing revealed one rare cacna1s nonsynonymous variant in a family with malignant hyperthermia
Data indicate that the presence of either one of these JP-45 variants decreased the sensitivity of the dihydropyridine receptor DHPR to activation.
Affected members of a 5-generation Chinese family with hypokalemic periodic paralysis patients had a novel His916Gln mutation in all male HypoPP patients of the family. Penetrance of the mutation was complete in male carriers, but not female carriers.
Misregulated splicing and altered gating of Ca(V)1.1 calcium channel is associated with muscle weakness in myotonic dystrophy.
A novel mutation in the CACNA1S gene--p.Arg900Gly--is found in a patient with hypokalemic periodic paralysis; this mutation is subsequently found to affect some of the patient's other family members.
All familial periodic paralysis patients studied have mutations in either CACNA1S or SCN4A, but only 4 sporadic periodic paralysis patients have de novo mutations in CACNA1S (R1239H) and SCN4A (R669x2, R1135H).
Three SNPs of CACNA1S gene exon 11 were found but could not be associated with thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in people of Han Nationality in Sichuan.
Expression of transgenic variants of dihydropyridine receptor (alpha1DHPR) subunit leads to replacement of native channels interacting with ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), demonstrating molecular remodelling in adult skeletal muscle fibers.
skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel with a mutation in the selectivity filter (CaV1.1 E1014K) conducts K
FMOD affected the expressions of the Cav1.1 and Cav3.1 genes. FMOD regulates calcium channel activity. The mRNA expressions of Cav1.1 and Cav3.1 increased during muscle regeneration.
Physical interaction of junctophilin and the CaV1.1 C terminus is crucial for skeletal muscle contraction.
The DHPR functions as a voltage sensor to trigger muscle contraction and as a Ca(2+) channel.
TnT3 regulates expression of Cav1.1 in skeletal muscle, this regulation is impaired in aging.
Immunohistochemistry and western blotting after expression of GPR179 in HEK293T cells indicate that the CACNA1S antibody used here and in the retinal studies published to date, cross-reacts with GPR179.
TnT3 regulates transcription of Cacna1s, the gene encoding Cav1.1. Knocking down TnT3 in vivo downregulated Cav1.1.
mutating residue E4242 affects RyR1 structures critical for retrograde communication with CaV1.1
Events occurring locally in the skeletal muscle of SOD1 mutant mice contribute to the impairment of CaV1.1 function in ALS muscle independently of innervation status.
Knockdown of Cav1.1 channels in T cells abrogated calcium entry after TCR stimulation, suggesting that Cav1.1 channels are controlled by T cell receptor signaling
Treatment of MSC with BMP4 caused a significant increase in expression of Cav1.2, a delay in expression of Cav1.1, and a reduction in the duration of calcium transients when extracellular calcium was removed
This study delineates a previously uncharacterized CaV1.1-mediated pathway that regulates energy utilization in skeletal muscle.
Raptor ablation in skeletal muscle decreases Cav1.1 expression and affects the function of the excitation-contraction coupling supramolecular complex.
amino-termini of Rad and Rem as the structural elements dictating the specific modes of inhibition of CaV1.1
the localization and stability of Cacna1s depend on the expression of mGluR6 and its cascade components, and they suggest that Cacna1s is part of the mGluR6 complex.
This work demonstrates the critical role of the chloride gradient in modulating the susceptibility to ictal weakness and establishes bumetanide as a potential therapy for hypokalaemic periodic paralysis arising from either NaV1.4 or CaV1.1 mutations.
Data propose a new role for Cav1.1 in the activation of signaling pathways allowing muscle fibers to decipher the frequency of electrical stimulation and to activate specific transcriptional programs that define their phenotype.
Ca(2+) transients evoked by tetanic stimulation are the result of massive Ca(2+) influx due to enhanced Ca(v)1.1 channel activity, which restores muscle strength in JP45/CASQ1 double knockout mice.
The CaV1.1 R528H knockin mutant mouse created a skeletal muscle phenotype that recapitulated all the essential features of hypokalemic periodic paralysis in humans.
This gene encodes one of the five subunits of the slowly inactivating L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel in skeletal muscle cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.
calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit
, voltage-dependent L type calcium channel alpha 1S subunit
, voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S
, transverse tubule dihydropyridine receptor alpha 1 subunit
, calcium channel, L type, alpha 1 polypeptide, isoform 3 (skeletal muscle, hypokalemic periodic paralysis)
, dihydropyridine receptor
, dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel alpha-1 subunit
, voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha Cav1.1
, calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 polypeptide, isoform 3, skeletal muscle
, DHPR alpha1s
, dihydropyridine receptor alpha 1S
, muscle dysgenesis
, L-type calcium channel, alpha 1 subunit
, voltage-gated calcium channel alpha 1S subunit