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DNA Damage Repair

DNA is the carrier of the genetic information that defines any living being. The genetic code fixed in DNA is crucial for processes on a subcellular scale up to the appearance and function of the organism as s whole. Nonetheless, DNA is constantly exposed to insults from endogenous sources such as hydrolysis, oxidation, alkylation, or replication errors. In addition, ionizing radiation, UV radiation, and a plethora of chemical reagents are external factors that threaten the integrity of DNA.

Unlike RNA and proteins, DNA is not being degraded and re-synthesized upon damage. Instead, various repair pathways are in existence to assure that the DNA remains intact. Francis Crick noted in 1974 that “we totally missed the possible role of enzymes in [DNA] repair. I later came to realize that DNA is so precious that probably many distinct mechanisms could exist.”

This presage holds true today: over a hundred genes have been characterized since that are involved in an intricate network of DNA repair pathways. DNA damage can be repaired via six different pathways depending on the nature of the lesion: chemical modifications, misincorporated nucleotides, and cross-links are reverted through direct reversal (DR), mismatch repair (MMR), and nucleotide excision repair mechanisms. DNA single strand breaks are being mended via base excision repair. Highly mutagenic DNA double strand breaks finally are repaired through a number of complex pathways that rely on homologous recombination (HR) with the sister chromatid (in the S or G2 phase of the cell cycle) or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of both ends of the double strand break. In case a DNA lesion cannot be repaired in time, specialized DNA polymerases enable trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) in order to prevent the DNA replication fork from stalling. Mutations that render components of these repair pathways non-functional lead to diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi anemia, and a predisposition for cancer.

Besides, these repair mechanisms are of high interest for current targeted genome editing approaches that typically take advantage of the cellular DNA repair machinery.


References:

  1. Aparacio T et al.: “DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and cancer”, DNA Repair (2014).
  2. Chatterjee N, Walker G: “Mechanisms of DNA damage, repair, and mutagenesis”, Environ Mol Mutagen (2017).
  3. Burgess JT et al.: “The Therapeutic Potential of DNA Damage Repair Pathways and Genomic Stability in Lung Cancer”, Front Oncol (2020).

Selected DNA Damage Repair Antibodies
Product
Reactivity
Validations
Cat. No.
Quantity
Price
ReactivityHuman
Validations
  • collections(4)
Cat. No.ABIN6924015
Quantity100 μL
Price $285.00
ReactivityHuman, Mouse, Rat
Validations
  • collections(2)
  • (1)
Cat. No.ABIN673434
Quantity100 μL
Price $339.90
ReactivityHuman
Validations
  • collections(4)
Cat. No.ABIN655900
Quantity400 μL
Price $434.50
ReactivityHuman, Rat
Validations
  • (2)
  • collections(8)
Cat. No.ABIN1724946
Quantity0.1 mg
Price $448.80
ReactivityHuman
Validations
  • collections(3)
Cat. No.ABIN6940661
Quantity100 μg
Price $494.31
ReactivityHuman, Mouse, Rat
Validations
  • (2)
  • collections(15)
Cat. No.ABIN2854788
Quantity100 μL
Price $509.08
ReactivityHuman, Mouse
Validations
  • (4)
  • collections(8)
Cat. No.ABIN2854762
Quantity100 μL
Price $509.08
ReactivityHuman
Validations
  • (1)
  • collections(6)
Cat. No.ABIN6146634
Quantity100 μL
Price $589.88
ReactivityHuman
Validations
  • collections(1)
Cat. No.ABIN6972575
Quantity200 μg
Price $643.33
ReactivityHuman
Validations
  • collections(3)
Cat. No.ABIN6972484
Quantity100 μg
Price $656.66

Canonical Non-Homologous End-Joining

XRCC6 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 6):

XRCC5 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 5 (Double-Strand-Break Rejoining)):

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

XRCC4 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 4):

POLL (Polymerase (DNA Directed), lambda):

MRE11A - MRE11 Meiotic Recombination 11 Homolog A (S. Cerevisiae):

Microhomology-Mediated End-Joining

Homologous Recombination

POLE (Polymerase (DNA Directed), Epsilon, Catalytic Subunit):

POLE2 - Polymerase (DNA Directed), epsilon 2 (p59 Subunit):

POLE3 - Polymerase (DNA Directed), epsilon 3 (p17 Subunit):

POLE4 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), epsilon 4 (p12 Subunit)):

POLD1 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 1, Catalytic Subunit 125kDa):

POLD2 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 2, Accessory Subunit):

POLD3 - Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 3, Accessory Subunit:

POLD4 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 4, Accessory Subunit):

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

RAD51C (DNA Repair Protein RAD51 Homolog 3):

XRCC2 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 2):

XRCC3 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 3):

BRIP1 (BRCA1 Interacting Protein C-terminal Helicase 1):

FAM175A - Family with Sequence Similarity 175, Member A:

MRE11A - MRE11 Meiotic Recombination 11 Homolog A (S. Cerevisiae):

TOP3A (Topoisomerase (DNA) III alpha):

RMI2 (RMI2, RecQ Mediated Genome Instability 2, Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

DNA2 (DNA Replication Helicase 2 Homolog (Yeast)):

MUS81 (MUS81 Endonuclease Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

SLX1B - SLX1 Structure-Specific Endonuclease Subunit Homolog B (S. Cerevisiae):

BTBD12 - BTB (POZ) Domain Containing 12:

GEN1 (Gen Endonuclease Homolog 1 (Drosophila)):

Single Strand Annealing

MSH3 (MutS Homolog 3 (E. Coli)):

ERCC4 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 4):

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

MRE11A - MRE11 Meiotic Recombination 11 Homolog A (S. Cerevisiae):

Break-Induced Replication

MRE11A - MRE11 Meiotic Recombination 11 Homolog A (S. Cerevisiae):

MCM7 - Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7:

Base Excision Repair

SMUG1 (Single-Strand-Selective Monofunctional Uracil-DNA Glycosylase 1):

MBD4 (Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 4):

POLD1 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 1, Catalytic Subunit 125kDa):

POLD2 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 2, Accessory Subunit):

POLD3 - Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 3, Accessory Subunit:

POLD4 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 4, Accessory Subunit):

Nuleotide Excision Repair

POLR2B - Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide B, 140kDa:

ERCC2 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 2):

ERCC3 - DNA Repair Protein Complementing XP-B Cells:

GTF2H4 (General Transcription Factor IIH, Polypeptide 4, 52kDa):

GTF2H3 (General Transcription Factor IIH, Polypeptide 3, 34kD):

GTF2H5 - General Transcription Factor IIH, Polypeptide 5:

RFC1 - Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 1, 145kDa:

RFC2 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 2, 40kDa):

RFC3 - Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 3, 38kDa:

RFC4 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 4, 37kDa):

RFC5 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 5, 36.5kDa):

ERCC4 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 4):

ERCC6 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 6):

ERCC8 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 8):

POLE (Polymerase (DNA Directed), Epsilon, Catalytic Subunit):

POLE2 - Polymerase (DNA Directed), epsilon 2 (p59 Subunit):

POLE3 - Polymerase (DNA Directed), epsilon 3 (p17 Subunit):

POLE4 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), epsilon 4 (p12 Subunit)):

XRCC1 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 1):

Mismatch Repair

MSH3 (MutS Homolog 3 (E. Coli)):

MLH1 (MutL Homolog 1, Colon Cancer, Nonpolyposis Type 2 (E. Coli)):

PMS2 (PMS2 Postmeiotic Segregation Increased 2 (S. Cerevisiae)):

RFC1 - Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 1, 145kDa:

RFC2 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 2, 40kDa):

RFC3 - Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 3, 38kDa:

RFC4 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 4, 37kDa):

RFC5 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 5, 36.5kDa):

POLD1 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 1, Catalytic Subunit 125kDa):

POLD2 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 2, Accessory Subunit):

POLD3 - Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 3, Accessory Subunit:

Direct Reversal

Trans-Lesion Synthesis

REV3L (REV3-Like, Polymerase (DNA Directed), Zeta, Catalytic Subunit):

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