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The human mesangial cells with up-regulated and down-regulated expression of RELM-beta increased or decreased significantly at 2-3 days.
RELMbeta-overexpression can facilitate invasion and migration of gastric carcinoma cells.
RELMbeta levels were increased in Abdominal aortic aneurysm patients in the serum and in the aortic tissue. Increased RELMbeta levels may be involved in the pathogenesis of AAA formation and progress.
The data demonstrated that RELM-a is a promising novel biomarker of angiogenesis in patients with gastric cancer.
elevated RELM-beta expression in asthmatic airways contributes to airways remodelling at least partly by increasing fibroblast proliferation and differentiation with resulting deposition of extracellular matrix proteins.
It is concluded that proper exercise training prevents up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMalpha induced by cigarette smoking, which may be involved in the mechanism of proper exercise training modulating airway hyperresponsiveness.
RELMbeta is abundantly expressed in foam cells within plaques and contributes to atherosclerosis development via lipid accumulation and inflammatory facilitation.
Epithelial cell derived Fizz1 transgene is sufficient to increase bone-marrow derived dendritic cells in the lungs.
RELM-beta may play an important role not only in animal models of airway remodelling, but also in human airway pathology.
RELM-beta has the potential to contribute to airway remodelling in diseases such as asthma by acting on epithelial cells to increase proliferation, mucin and growth factor production, at least partly via ERK/MAPK-PI3K/Akt signalling pathways.
Data show that over-expression of RELMbeta abolishes the invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells in vitro.
High RELMbeta is associated with colorectal cancer.
FIZZ2 is highly induced in lungs of human patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Gastric cncer patients showing positive RELMbeta expression had a significantly longer overall survival than those with negative expression (P = 0.001).
High levels of RELMbeta can be detected in the stool of mice and humans, where it exists as a homodimer under nonreducing conditions.
Of the 80 colon cancer patients studied, 65 (81.25%) tested positive for RELM beta, mainly in the cytoplasm of colon mucosa.
Results suggest that RELM-beta may be involved in the development of scleroderma-associated pulmonary hypertension.
Supernatant from COS cells transfected with the CCRG (RETNLB) expression vector stimulated proliferation of colon cancer cells, which supports the growth factor nature of the RETNLB gene.
promotes host-bacterial mutualism by regulating the spatial segregation between the microbiota and the intestinal epithelium
The goblet cell-derived RELM-beta drives spontaneous colitis in Muc2-deficient mice by promoting commensal microbial dysbiosis.
lack of RELMbeta leads to increased colonic expression of T helper cell type-2 cytokines and IL-17, associated with a reduced ability to maintain intestinal homeostasis
These data suggest the contribution of increases in RELMbeta in the gut and Kupffer cells to NASH development, raising the possibility of RELMbeta being a novel therapeutic target for NASH.
These data demonstrate that RELMalpha but not RELMbeta significantly impacts the immune response to N. brasiliensis infection by downregulating the Th2 adaptive immune response in the lung.
RELMbeta protein levels were upregulated in Angiotensin II-induced Abdominal aortic aneurysm mice.Immunohistochemical staining revealed abundant expression of RELMbeta in AAA group, with scarce expression with saline treatment animals.
findings demonstrate that RELM-beta and goblet cells play an unexpected, yet critical role in recruiting CD4+ T cells to the colon to protect against an enteric pathogen
a novel role for GC-C signaling in facilitating mucosal wounding and inflammation, and further suggest that this may be mediated, in part, through control of RELMbeta production
FIZZ2 is a T helper type (Th)2-associated multifunctional mediator with potentially important roles in the pathogenesis of fibrotic lung diseases.
Secretion of RELMbeta is dramatically reduced in germ-free mice. Furthermore, introduction of germ-free mice into a conventional environment results in enhanced expression and robust secretion of RELMbeta within 48 hours.
crystal structure reveals hexameric assemblies consisting of trimers linked to form hexamers through highly exposed disulfide bonds; structure suggests possible regulation through disulfide cleavage or by regulation during assembly
intestinal goblet cell-derived RELMbeta may be a novel Th2 cytokine-induced immune-effector molecule in resistance to Gastrointestinal nematode infection
Serum concentrations of RELMbeta and RELMgamma may be a novel intestinal-tract-mediating regulator of insulin sensitivity, possibly involved in insulin resistance induced by obesity and a high-fat diet
increased expression of RELMbeta may be involved in the pathogenesis of glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia in some insulin-resistant models
model whereby the loss of epithelial barrier function by dextran sodium sulfate results in the activation of the innate mucosal response by RELMbeta located in the lumen
RELM-beta is a Th2-associated cytokine with potent inflammatory and remodeling activity
Insulin and TNFalpha as well as stearic acid, upregulated RELMbeta expression, while d-glucose downregulated RELMbeta
RELMbeta is involved in the initiation of ileitis in SAMP1/Fc mice and may act through the induction of proinflammatory cytokines from resident immune cells within the mucosa.
C/EBP-epsilon regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein precursor 2
, colon and small intestine-specific cysteine-rich protein
, colon carcinoma-related gene protein
, cysteine-rich secreted A12-alpha-like protein 1
, cysteine-rich secreted protein A12-alpha-like 1
, cysteine-rich secreted protein FIZZ2
, found in inflammatory zone 1
, resistin-like beta
, resistin like beta
, resistin-like protein beta
, cysteine-rich secreted protein A12-beta
, found in inflammatory zone 2
, resistin-like molecule beta