Synonyms: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), Colony-stimulating factor (CSF), Molgramostin, Sargramostim
GMCSF is a cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes. It´s involved in differentiation of dendritic cells and is a key factor in differentiation pathways leading form stem cells. GMCSF is produced by several cell types as monocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and T- Lymphocytes in response to a number of inflammatory mediators present in the hemopoietic environment and peripheral site of inflammation. Human GMCF is an important therapeutic cytokine used in the treatment of myeloid leukemia, neutropenia and aplastic anemia and it could become interesting in the treatment following bone marrow transplantation. It performs its biological activity by binding to a specific receptor complex which is composed of a cytokine-specific alpha chain and beta chain, shared with the receptors for interleukin-3 and interleukin-5. GMCSR has been identified to mediate the activation of Jak-Stat and MAPK pathways.