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AgRP acted as a biased agonist in MC3R, decreasing cAMP activity of constitutively active mutant (F347A) MC3R but stimulating ERK1/2 activation in both wild type and F347A MC3Rs.
AgRP is not associated with changes in hunger or satiety, and can change without corresponding changes in leptin. This suggests that AgRP may not be involved in the episodic control of appetite and the release of AgRP may involve signals other than leptin.
data provide compelling evidence that AgRP is a heparan sulfate-binding protein and localizes critical regions in the AgRP structure required for this interaction.
The aim of this survey is to evaluate the association of genetic variants of melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), apolipoprotein E (APOE) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) with obesity in the North Indian population.
CSF AgRP was not different in lean vs. overweight/obese subjects; however, plasma AgRP was higher in lean subjects.
human agouti-related protein has a role in enhancing expression and stability of human melanocortin-4 receptor
Variations in genes AGRP, CPE, GHRL, GLP1R, HTR2A, NPY1R, NPY5R, SOCS3 and STAT3 showed modest associations with BMI in European Americans.
Elevations in AgRP also favor the diagnosis of ectopic ACTH syndrome, suggesting AgRP should be further evaluated as a potential neuroendocrine tumor marker.
AGRP SNP (rs1338993) was not associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients.
Data suggest that prolonged steady-state exercise/physical activity at moderate intensity elicits substantial increases in blood lactate and cortisol concentrations without a significant change in AgRP; study was pilot project involving men.
Despite peripheral hyperleptinemia, positive energy balance is achieved during pregnancy by a relative decrease in central leptin concentrations and resistance to leptin's effects on target neuropeptides that regulate energy balance.
AgRP and NPY are correlated with body weight changes, rather than the presence of type 2 diabetes, whereas changes in alphaMSH immunoreactivity are related to the presence of type 2 diabetes, indicating separate hypothalamic mechanisms.
Cognitive flexibility plays an important role in anorexia nervosa and may be modulated by abnormal levels of the appetite-regulating peptide AGRP.
This review defines how peripheral signals (particularly leptin, insulin and glucose) converge on a molecular level in proopiomelanocortin (POMC)- and agouti-related protein (AgRP)-expressing arcuate nucleus neurons to control energy homeostasis.
Only the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver presented a positive correlation between the saturated fatty acids intake and the orexigenic neuropeptides NPY and agouti related protein, and carbohydrate with NPY
AgRP may provide an important signal in the immune environment and the lymphocyte may be considered as an extra-hypothalamic source of plasma AgRP following exercise stress
Agouti-related protein is neatively correlated with nonalcolic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents.
A polymorphism, 199G>A, resulted in substitution of the amino acid at position 67 from alanine to threonine.
NMR structural studies show that the loop in the first 16 residues of the C-terminal domain of AGRP confers distinct selectivity for melanocortin receptors MC3R and MC4R.
the c.199G-->A polymorphism in hAGRP could play a role in the development of human obesity in an age-dependent fashion
nalysis of hypothalamic and neuroendocrine responses to HFS throughout the light-dark cycle suggests uncoupling of hypothalamic responses involving appetite-stimulating fasting-responsive hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (Npy).
By using mutant mice with liver-specific ablation of Eralpha, the authors here demonstrate that the hepatic ERalpha is essential for the modulation of the activity of Agouti Related Protein (AgRP) neurons in relation to the reproductive cycle and diet.
The results demonstrate a novel role of PDK1 in AgRP neurons to counteract the high salt diet-induced hypertension by preventing hyperactivation of paraventricular nucleus nesfatin-1 neurons.
The findings are consistent with the idea that, during metabolic deficiency, AgRP signaling contributes to infertility by inhibiting Kiss1 neurons.
POMC and AgRP neurons receive direct steroid- and frequency-dependent glutamatergic synaptic input from Kiss1(ARC) neurons in male mice
P2Y6 signaling in AgRP neurons is involved in the onset of obesity-associated hyperphagia.
These results identify SK3 as a key intrinsic mediator that coordinates nutritional status with AgRP/NPY neural activities and animals' feeding behavior and energy metabolism.
It was concluded that a small population of neuroendocrine cells in the adrenal medulla, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, express AgRP and neuropeptide Y and are functionally involved in the systemic response to fasting.
define a disynaptic network originating from a subset of Agouti-related peptide neurons in the hypothalamus that project to the medial nucleus of the amygdala and then to the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which suppresses territorial aggression and reduces contextual fear.
These findings indicate that the relevance of AgRP to POMC neuron GABA connectivity depends on the state of AgRP neuron activity and suggest that different types of transmitter release should be considered when circuit mapping.
CRFR1, in a subset of AgRP neurons, plays a regulatory role that enables appropriate sympathetic nervous system activation and consequently protects the organism from hypothermia and hypoglycemia.
Diet composition, not calorie intake, rapidly alters intrinsic excitability of hypothalamic AgRP/NPY neurons in mice.
Data show that agouti-related protein (AgRP)-glucocorticoid receptor knockout (GR-/-) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity.
Data show that chronic caloric restriction (CR) alters hypothalamic agouti-related protein (Agrp) and neuropeptide Y (Npy) gene expression similarly in Ghrelin+/+, Ghrelin-/-, ghrelin receptor Ghsr+/+, and Ghsr-/- mice.
Suppression of sympathetic tone in AgRP-Sirt1/(--) mice reversed osteopenia in transgenic animals.
Data (including data from studies in transgenic/knockout mice) suggest that expression in adult brain neurons (especially in parabrachial nucleus) of both Dmbx1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) and AgRP is important in appetite regulation.
mTORC1 in Agrp neurons controls circadian expression of orexigenic neuropeptides but is dispensable for the regulation of feeding behavior and energy metabolism
Absence of Mc3rs (but not Ghsrs) was associated with lower AgRP/Npy expression, suggesting attenuated responses to signals of negative energy balance.
These experiments reveal both overlapping and nonredundant effects of JNK- and IKK-dependent signaling in AgRP neurons.
Agrp is increased in arcuate hypothalamus during food deprivation.
(Nle4, d-Phe7)-alphaMSH (NDP-alphaMSH) stimulated the production of cortisol and these effects were abolished by agouti related protein or SHU9119, a synthetic antagonist of melanocortin 3 and melanocortin 4 receptor
Agrp inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the 10(-9) M NDP-alphaMSH-induced cortisol production through its antagonistic properties towards MSH at the level of MC4-R
This gene encodes an antagonist of the melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptor. It appears to regulate hypothalamic control of feeding behavior via melanocortin receptor and/or intracellular calcium regulation, and thus plays a role in weight homeostasis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with late on-set obesity.
, orexigenic neuropeptide
, agouti related protein
, agouti related protein homolog (mouse)