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Tumor into the stomach wall caused a decrease in the number of CART-positive (+) nerve fibers in the longitudinal (LML) and circular muscle layers (CML).
Data suggest that the stress of intermittent hypoxia up-regulates expression of mRNA and protein for POMC and CART in neuronal cell lines; GATA2 and GATA3 appear to be involved in these stress mechanisms. (POMC = proopiomelanocortin; CART = cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein; GATA2 = endothelial transcription factor GATA-2; GATA3 = T-cell-specific transcription factor GATA-3)
Adenocarcinoma growth into the colon wall caused an increase in the relative frequency of CART-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) neurons in enteric plexuses located in the vicinity of the infiltrating neoplasm.
In vitro neurochemical studies provide new insights into the interactions among CART peptide, dopamine and cocaine in the nucleus accumbens by showing a direct inhibitory effect of CART on dopamine both in normal conditions and after cocaine induction, as well as an effect of CART on the dopamine metabolites DOPAC, HVA and DOPET.
Study conclude that CART is a regulator of glucose homeostasis and could play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Based on the ability of CART to increase insulin secretion and reduce glucagon secretion, CART-based agents could be a therapeutic modality in type 2 diabetes.
polymorphisms in the gene may be useful in identifying women at risk for osteoporosis.
In samples from patients undergoing IVF, there is a significant positive correlation between patient BMI, CART mRNA expression in granulosa cells, and CART peptide levels in follicular fluid.
Colocalization experiments provided evidence for the presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in KP-immunoreactive (IR) and perikarya and in KP-IR and NKB-IR axon varicosities.
In schizophrenia patients on clozapine monotherapy, CART levels did not correlate with age, weight, BMI, abdominal, waist and hip circumferences, WHR, blood pressure, clozapine dose or treatment duration, body composition, or markers of insulin resistance
Lower CART levels pose a risk for developing polycystic ovary syndrome.
CART SNPs (rs10515115, rs3763153, rs3857384, rs11575893, rs16871471) were not associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients.
CART is expressed in nerve fibers and co-localizes with other neuronal factors in the circular muscle layer of human descending colon
Family-based association study failed to observe a statistically significant association for any of the genotyped SNPs in the CARTPT gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Ischemia insult triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) enhances NRSF mRNA levels and then NRSF antagonizes the CREB signaling on CART activation, leading to augmented cell death.
Serum CART can be detected in both diabetic and non-diabetic human pregnancy and may play an important role in body mass regulation in pregnancy.
a detailed description of the CART distribution pattern within the human alimentary tract.
The first report on the presence of CART-IR structures in the normal human pancreas.
Expression of CART in small bowel carcinoid tumors is associated with worse survival.
It was shown that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein (CART) increases the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptor alpha and that CART stimulates an autocrine/paracrine loop within tumor cells to amplify the CART signal.
This study demonistrated thatsex difference in CART dynamic expressions in the midbrain of drug-free depressed suicide victims.
The potential mechanism of CART was determined to be associated with inflammatory cytokines and related apoptotic genes. CART therefore appears to be associated with DA in its effect on ischemic stroke and is protective against brain injury following ischemic stroke by reducing inflammation activation
Study showed that the perikarya and central terminals of vagal afferents are invariably enriched in CART and devoid of melanin-concentrating hormone and that neuropeptidergic profile of the CART-positive vagal afferents is remarkably stable across the energy balance spectrum.
Taken together, these results demonstrate that CART is a critical regulator of energy expenditure, energy partitioning and utilization dependent on the thermal environment.
Collectively, our main findings indicate that high-fat diet induced-hypertension and autonomic imbalance are associated to an upregulation of CART levels in the dorsomedial hypothalamus of mice.
Leptin induced CART negatively affects intracellular cAMP levels, MAPK signaling, and aromatase mRNA expression, which leads to lower estradiol synthesis in granulosa cells and altered ovarian folliculogenesis.
100 mg/kg caffeine increased CART 2 h after administration in nucleus accumbens shell, dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of the amygdala, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, and locus coeruleus.
The present study demonstrates a role for CART in ethanol consummatory behaviors.
CART exerts a neuroprotective effect via inhibition of post-spinal cord injury astrogliosis.
CART is an antioxidant peptide
CART expression is observed in loose clusters of spinocerebellar mossy fibers in the mouse anterior and posterior zones.
The lack of brain Ucn 1 immunoreactivity at birth and the gradual postnatal increase in Ucn 1 in the perioculomotor area suggests that this peptide plays a greater behavioral role in adulthood than during the early postnatal development of an organism.
Ucn1, CART and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 are specifically involved in the response of Edinger-Westphal nucleus neurons to acute stress in the mouse
leptin modulates arcuate cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript expression in obese A(y)/a mice
studies indicate that the CART proximal promoter lies within the 5'-most 641 bp and that in GH3 cells the CART gene is regulated via a cyclic AMP-dependent pathway
Review. The genetics of CART and its role in reward, stress, and feeding behavior are reviewed.
CART-producing cells are involved in energy homeostasis in the hypothalamus
Processing of pro-CART revealed that PC2 is more potent than PC1/3 in generating bioactive CART I; bioactive CART II is solely generated by PC2; and PC1/3 is predominantly active in liberating the two intermediate CART fragments, 33-102 and 10-89.
Results provide evidence that the calcium response element of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) proximal promoter is involved in cyclic AMP/protein kinase A/CREB regulation in cells having a neuronal phenotype.
CART ('cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript'), a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin and nearly abolished in ob/ob mice, inhibits bone resorption by modulating Rankl expression
CART peptide in the normal pancreas has been identified in intrapancreatic ganglia, nerve fibres and in endocrine cells of Langerhans islets and exocrine pancreas.
these results demonstrate hormonal regulation of granulosa cell CART binding in vitro and temporal regulation of CART binding in subordinate follicles during dominant follicle selection. Results also suggest that CART signaling may help suppress estradiol-producing capacity of the F2 (subordinate) follicle during this time period.
cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
CART may be a novel local regulator of follicular atresia in the bovine ovary[CART]
DNA sequence of the complete coding region of the bovine CART gene
Potent inhibitory effects of CART on multiple components of the follitropin signaling pathway linked to follicular development.
The intracellular mechanism of action of CART in regulation of FSH-induced MAPK signaling.
Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms show an association between genotype and body weight.
A potential stage-specific regulatory role for CART in negative regulation of estradiol production associated with selection of the dominant follicle.
Results show that even low doses of T-2 toxin may change the expression of CART in the nervous system, and confirms that CART seems to be an important neuronal factor within the enteric nervous system, which takes part in regulation of intestinal functions both in physiological conditions and during pathological states.
This study showed that CART present in the pelvic plexus (PP) may influence the activity of pelvic ganglionic neurons/SIF cells, that the PP should be considered as a potential source of CART-like supply to pelvic viscera, and that functional interactions between CART and substance P or PACAP are possible at the periphery.
CART-LI perikarya decreased in myenteric plexus of the gastric antrum, corpus, and pylorus in experimental diabetes. Acute hyperglycemia reduced CART expression in enteric perikarya and decreased CART-LI fiber density in gastric antrum circular muscle.
CgA and CgB have been used as general NEN biomarkers for many years, while CART has only recently been identified
The present study reports for the first time on the co-localisation of CART and VIP in myenteric neurons of the porcine transverse colon.
Distribution and chemical coding pattern of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity in the preoptic area of the pig
In every amygdaloid region the CART-immunoreactive neurons formed a heterogeneous population consisting mostly of small, rounded or slightly elongated cell bodies, with a few poorly branched, smooth dendrites.
the regulation of the pig CART gene
The chromosome region harbouring the CART gene is a promising quantitative trait loci for pig production traits.
This gene encodes a secreted protein which is processed by prohormone/proprotein convertases to produce smaller, biologically active peptides. Expression of the transcript for this gene is regulated by certain drugs such as cocaine, and the encoded protein is thought to be involved in the regulation of appetite and stress. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to obesity.
cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein
, cocaine and amphetamine responsive transcript