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Data suggest that the stress of intermittent hypoxia up-regulates expression of mRNA and protein for POMC (show POMC Proteins) and CART in neuronal cell lines; GATA2 (show GATA2 Proteins) and GATA3 (show GATA3 Proteins) appear to be involved in these stress mechanisms. (POMC (show POMC Proteins) = proopiomelanocortin (show POMC Proteins); CART = cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein; GATA2 (show GATA2 Proteins) = endothelial transcription factor GATA-2 (show GATA2 Proteins); GATA3 (show GATA3 Proteins) = T-cell-specific transcription factor GATA-3 (show GATA3 Proteins))
Study conclude that CART is a regulator of glucose homeostasis and could play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Based on the ability of CART to increase insulin (show INS Proteins) secretion and reduce glucagon (show GCG Proteins) secretion, CART-based agents could be a therapeutic modality in type 2 diabetes.
In sam (show LEP Proteins)ples from patients undergoing IVF, there is a significant positi (show MAPK1 Proteins)ve correlation between pa (show CYP19A1 Proteins)tient BMI, CART mRNA expression in granulosa cells, and CART peptide levels in follicular fluid.
Colocalization experiments provided evidence for the presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in KP-immunoreactive (IR) and perikarya and in KP-IR and NKB (show TAC3 Proteins)-IR axon varicosities.
In schizophrenia patients on clozapine monotherapy, CART levels did not correlate with age, weight, BMI, abdominal, waist and hip circumferences, WHR, blood pressure, clozapine dose or treatment duration, body composition, or markers of insulin (show INS Proteins) resistance
Family-based association study failed to observe a statistically significant association for any of the genotyped SNPs in the CARTPT gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Ischemia insult triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD (show FGFR1 Proteins)) enhances NRSF (show REST Proteins) mRNA levels and then NRSF (show REST Proteins) antagonizes the CREB (show CREB1 Proteins) signaling on CART activation, leading to augmented cell death.
It was shown that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein (CART) increases the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptor alpha (show ESR1 Proteins) and that CART stimulates an autocrine/paracrine loop within tumor cells to amplify the CART signal.
Study showed that the perikarya and central terminals of vagal afferents are invariably enriched in CART and devoid of melanin-concentrating hormone (show PMCH Proteins) and that neuropeptidergic profile of the CART-positive vagal afferents is remarkably stable across the energy balance spectrum.
Leptin (show LEP Proteins) induced CART negatively affects intracellular cAMP levels, MAPK (show MAPK1 Proteins) signaling, and aromatase (show CYP19A1 Proteins) mRNA expression, which leads to lower estradiol synthesis in granulosa cells and altered ovarian folliculogenesis.
The lack of brain Ucn 1 immunoreactivity at birth and the gradual postnatal increase in Ucn 1 in the perioculomotor area suggests that this peptide plays a greater behavioral role in adulthood than during the early postnatal development of an organism.
Ucn1, CART and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 (show NUCB2 Proteins) are specifically involved in the response of Edinger-Westphal nucleus neurons to acute stress in the mouse
leptin (show LEP Proteins) modulates arcuate cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript expression in obese A(y)/a mice
studies indicate that the CART proximal promoter lies within the 5'-most 641 bp and that in GH3 cells the CART gene is regulated via a cyclic AMP (show TMPRSS5 Proteins)-dependent pathway
Processing of pro-CART revealed that PC2 (show CBX4 Proteins) is more potent than PC1/3 (show PCSK1 Proteins) in generating bioactive CART I; bioactive CART II is solely generated by PC2 (show CBX4 Proteins); and PC1/3 (show PCSK1 Proteins) is predominantly active in liberating the two intermediate CART fragments, 33-102 and 10-89.
Results provide evidence that the calcium response element of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) proximal promoter is involved in cyclic AMP (show TMPRSS5 Proteins)/protein kinase A/CREB (show CREB1 Proteins) regulation in cells having a neuronal phenotype.
CART ('cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript'), a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin (show LEP Proteins) and nearly abolished in ob/ob mice, inhibits bone resorption by modulating Rankl (show TNFSF11 Proteins) expression
cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
Potent inhibitory effects of CART on multiple components of the follitropin (show FSHB Proteins) signaling pathway linked to follicular development.
The intracellular mechanism of action of CART in regulation of FSH (show BRD2 Proteins)-induced MAPK (show MAPK1 Proteins) signaling.
This study showed that CART present in the pelvic plexus (PP) may influence the activity of pelvic ganglionic neurons/SIF cells, that the PP should be considered as a potential source of CART-like supply to pelvic viscera, and that functional interactions between CART and substance P (show TAC1 Proteins) or PACAP (show ADCYAP1 Proteins) are possible at the periphery.
CgA (show CHGA Proteins) and CgB (show CHGB Proteins) have been used as general NEN biomarkers for many years, while CART has only recently been identified
The present study reports for the first time on the co-localisation of CART and VIP (show Vip Proteins) in myenteric neurons of the porcine transverse colon.
Distribution and chemical coding pattern of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity in the preoptic area of the pig
This gene encodes a secreted protein which is processed by prohormone/proprotein convertases to produce smaller, biologically active peptides. Expression of the transcript for this gene is regulated by certain drugs such as cocaine, and the encoded protein is thought to be involved in the regulation of appetite and stress. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to obesity.
cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein
, cocaine and amphetamine responsive transcript