Protein Function: Cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes.
Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor(GM-CSF) is also symbolized CSF2. Human GM-CSF is a glycoprotein that is essential for the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of precursor cells into mature granulocytes and macrophages. The human cDNA clones contain a single open-reading frame encoding a protein of 144 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 16,293 daltons and show 69 % nucleotide homology and 54 % amino acid homology to mouse GM-CSF. The gene for human GM-CSF appears to exist as a single-copy gene. Human GM-CSF is a 22,000-dalton glycoprotein that stimulates the growth of myeloid progenitor cells and acts directly on mature neutrophils. The GM-CSF gene is localized by somatic cell hybrid analysis and in situ hybridization to human chromosome region 5q21-5q32, which is involved in interstitial deletions in the 5q- syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia. A complementary DNA for the T lymphocyte-derived lymphokine, GM-CSF has been cloned, and recombinant GM-CSF protein has been expressed in yeast and purified to homogeneity. This purified human recombinant GM-CSF stimulates peripheral blood monocytes in vitro to become cytotoxic for the malignant melanoma cell line A375.
Synonyms: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor,GM-CSF,Colony-stimulating factor,CSF,Molgramostin,Sargramostim,CSF2,GMCSF,
Full Gene Name: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factorCellular Localisation: Secreted.