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PI3K-Akt Signaling

The PI3K/Akt pathway is pivotal for cellular homeostasis, neurological development, metabolism, and other processes. It regulates various aspects of cellular development such as apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and cell differentiation.

The key regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway is Akt/PKB, a family of three closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases. Akt1/PKB alpha plays an important role in cell proliferation and cell metabolism. Akt2/PKB beta is of great significance for glucose metabolism. Akt3/PKB gamma is the least characterized member of the Akt family but it is mainly expressed in the brain where it is thought to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis.

Mutations in Akt contribute oftentimes to deregulation of these processes and the emergence of various forms of cancer. Akt hyperactivation also leads to increased glycolysis, thus supporting the metabolic transformation of cancer cells. Akt has been implicated in the development of cancer drug resistance and is therefore subject of preclinical and clinical research. However, Akt activation alone is usually not sufficient and other mutations are generally necessary to create the cancer phenotype.

Loss of function of the major Akt regulators PI3K and PTEN can lead to hyperactivation of Akt. PI3Ks are an enzyme family that phosphorylate PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Upon activation by receptor tyrosine kinase PI3K phosphorylates PIP2 to PIP3 which then activates Akt signaling. PTEN acts as a negative regulator of the signal transduction by dephosphorylation of PIP3 to PIP2.

Akt

AKT1 - AKT

The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through...   More...
Antigens in this category:
AKT2 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2): AKT2 antibodies AKT2 ELISA Kits AKT2 Proteins
AKT3 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (Protein Kinase B, Gamma)): AKT3 antibodies AKT3 ELISA Kits AKT3 Proteins

AMPA receptors

GRIA1 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 1):

Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. These receptors are heteromeric protein complexes with multiple subunits, each possessing transmembrane regions, and all arranged to form a ligand-gated ion channel. The classification of glutamate receptors is based on their...   More...

GRIA2 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2):

Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled...   More...
Antigens in this category:
GRIA3 - Glutamate Receptor 3: GRIA3 antibodies GRIA3 ELISA Kits GRIA3 Proteins
GRIA4 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotrophic, AMPA 4): GRIA4 antibodies GRIA4 ELISA Kits GRIA4 Proteins

Apoptosis

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   More...

MDM2 (Mdm2, p53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog (Mouse)):

This gene is a target gene of the transcription factor tumor protein p53. The encoded protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein that binds and inhibits transactivation by tumor protein p53, as part of an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. Overexpression of this gene can result in excessive inactivation of tumor protein p53, diminishing its tumor suppressor function. This protein has E3 ubiquitin...   More...
Antigens in this category:
BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death): BAD antibodies BAD ELISA Kits BAD Proteins
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX antibodies BAX ELISA Kits BAX Proteins
BCL2L11 - BIM: BCL2L11 antibodies BCL2L11 ELISA Kits BCL2L11 Proteins
FOXO1 (Forkhead Box O1): FOXO1 antibodies FOXO1 ELISA Kits FOXO1 Proteins
TP53 - p53: TP53 antibodies TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteins

Cell cycle

CCNA2 - Cyclin A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. In contrast to cyclin A1,...   More...

CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)):

This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2 or -CDK4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in...   More...
Antigens in this category:
CCND1 - Cyclin D1: CCND1 antibodies CCND1 ELISA Kits CCND1 Proteins
CDK2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2): CDK2 antibodies CDK2 ELISA Kits CDK2 Proteins
CDK2AP2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Associated Protein 2): CDK2AP2 antibodies CDK2AP2 ELISA Kits CDK2AP2 Proteins
GSK3a - GSK3 alpha: GSK3a antibodies GSK3a ELISA Kits GSK3a Proteins

Cell survival

EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1):

This gene encodes one member of a family of translation repressor proteins. The protein directly interacts with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is a limiting component of the multisubunit complex that recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5' end of mRNAs. Interaction of this protein with eIF4E inhibits complex assembly and represses translation. This protein is...   More...

RPS6KB1 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 70kDa, Polypeptide 1):

This gene encodes a member of the ribosomal S6 kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein responds to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling to promote protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation. Activity of this gene has been associated with human cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed. The use of alternative translation...   More...
Antigens in this category:
ATG13 (Autophagy Related 13): ATG13 antibodies ATG13 ELISA Kits ATG13 Proteins
RPS6KB2 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 70kDa, Polypeptide 2): RPS6KB2 antibodies RPS6KB2 ELISA Kits RPS6KB2 Proteins

Glucose metabolism

GYS1 - Glycogen Synthase 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the addition of glucose monomers to the growing glycogen molecule through the formation of alpha-1,4-glycoside linkages. Mutations in this gene are associated with muscle glycogen storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009].   More...

PIP5K1B (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, beta):

Participates in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Mediates RAC1-dependent reorganization of actin filaments. Contributes to the activation of PLD2. Together with PIP5K1A is required after stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors for stable platelet adhesion (By similarity).   More...
Antigens in this category:
PFKFB2 (6-phosphofructo-2-Kinase/fructose-2,6-Biphosphatase 2): PFKFB2 antibodies PFKFB2 ELISA Kits PFKFB2 Proteins
GSK3a - GSK3 alpha: GSK3a antibodies GSK3a ELISA Kits GSK3a Proteins
HK2 - Hexokinase 2: HK2 antibodies HK2 ELISA Kits HK2 Proteins
PIP5K1A (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, alpha): PIP5K1A antibodies   PIP5K1A Proteins
PIP5K1C (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, gamma): PIP5K1C antibodies PIP5K1C ELISA Kits PIP5K1C Proteins

Immune response

GSK3a - GSK3 alpha

This gene encodes a multifunctional Ser/Thr protein kinase that is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase, and transcription factors, such as JUN. It also plays a role in the WNT and PI3K signaling pathways, as well as regulates the production of beta-amyloid peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011].   More...

NCF1 (Neutrophil Cytosol Factor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a 47 kDa cytosolic subunit of neutrophil NADPH oxidase. This oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme that is activated to produce superoxide anion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with chronic granulomatous disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...
Antigens in this category:
CHUK (conserved Helix-Loop-Helix Ubiquitous Kinase): CHUK antibodies CHUK ELISA Kits CHUK Proteins
MAP3K8 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8): MAP3K8 antibodies MAP3K8 ELISA Kits MAP3K8 Proteins

mTORC1

MLST8 (MTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

cytosolic protein similar to an insulin receptor [RGD, Feb 2006].   More...

RPTOR - Raptor

This gene encodes a component of a signaling pathway that regulates cell growth in response to nutrient and insulin levels. The encoded protein forms a stoichiometric complex with the mTOR kinase, and also associates with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase. The protein positively regulates the downstream effector ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and...   More...
Antigens in this category:
DEPTOR (DEP Domain Containing MTOR-Interacting Protein): DEPTOR antibodies DEPTOR ELISA Kits DEPTOR Proteins
FRAP1 - MTOR: FRAP1 antibodies FRAP1 ELISA Kits FRAP1 Proteins

mTORC2

DEPTOR (DEP Domain Containing MTOR-Interacting Protein):

Negative regulator of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling pathways. Inhibits the kinase activity of both complexes (By similarity).   More...

TNPO1 - Transportin 1

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the karyopherin receptor complex which interacts with nuclear localization signals to target nuclear proteins to the nucleus. The karyopherin receptor complex is a heterodimer of an alpha subunit which recognizes the nuclear localization signal and a beta subunit which docks the complex at nucleoporins. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two...   More...
Antigens in this category:
FRAP1 - MTOR: FRAP1 antibodies FRAP1 ELISA Kits FRAP1 Proteins
MAPKAP1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Associated Protein 1): MAPKAP1 antibodies MAPKAP1 ELISA Kits MAPKAP1 Proteins
MLST8 (MTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): MLST8 antibodies MLST8 ELISA Kits MLST8 Proteins
PRR5 - Proline Rich 5 (Renal): PRR5 antibodies PRR5 ELISA Kits PRR5 Proteins

Neural development

HTT - Huntingtin

Huntingtin is a disease gene linked to Huntington's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of striatal neurons. This is thought to be caused by an expanded, unstable trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene, which translates as a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product. A fairly broad range in the number of trinucleotide repeats has been identified in normal...   More...

PDK

PDPK1 (3-phosphoinositide Dependent Protein Kinase-1):

Serine/threonine kinase required for embryonic development. Inhibits apoptosis. Acts in the insulin receptor transduction pathway which regulates cell growth and organ size, by phosphorylating and activating Akt1 and S6k. May be involved in axonal pathfinding and synaptogenesis, and in spermatogenesis.   More...

PDK1 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 1):

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of homeostasis of carbohydrate fuels in mammals. The enzymatic activity is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle. Phosphorylation of PDH by a specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)...   More...
Antigens in this category:
PDK2 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 2): PDK2 antibodies PDK2 ELISA Kits PDK2 Proteins
PDK3 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 3): PDK3 antibodies PDK3 ELISA Kits PDK3 Proteins
PDK4 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 4): PDK4 antibodies PDK4 ELISA Kits PDK4 Proteins

PHLPP

PHLPP1 (PH Domain and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 1):

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine phosphatase family. The encoded protein promotes apoptosis by dephosphorylating and inactivating the serine/threonine kinase Akt, and functions as a tumor suppressor in multiple types of cancer. Increased expression of this gene may also play a role in obesity and type 2 diabetes by interfering with Akt-mediated insulin signaling. [provided by...   More...
Antigens in this category:
PHLPP2 (PH Domain and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 2): PHLPP2 antibodies   PHLPP2 Proteins

PI3K

PIK3CA (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, alpha Polypeptide):

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents the catalytic subunit, which uses ATP to phosphorylate PtdIns, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This gene has been found to be oncogenic and has been implicated in cervical cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

PIK3R5 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Regulatory Subunit 5):

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position, and play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking. The PI3Ks are divided into three classes: I, II and III, and only the class I PI3Ks are involved in oncogenesis. This gene encodes the 101 kD regulatory...   More...
Antigens in this category:
PIK3CG (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, gamma Polypeptide): PIK3CG antibodies PIK3CG ELISA Kits PIK3CG Proteins
PIK3R6 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Regulatory Subunit 6): PIK3R6 antibodies PIK3R6 ELISA Kits PIK3R6 Proteins
PI3KR5 (PI3KR5): PI3KR5 antibodies    

PP2A

PPP2CA - Protein Phosphatase 2, Catalytic Subunit, alpha Isozyme

This gene encodes the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. This gene encodes...   More...

PPP2R4 (Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator, Regulatory Subunit 4):

Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2A holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55,...   More...
Antigens in this category:
MTS - Microtubule Star: MTS antibodies    
PPP2R1A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit A, alpha): PPP2R1A antibodies PPP2R1A ELISA Kits PPP2R1A Proteins
PPP2R1B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit A, beta): PPP2R1B antibodies PPP2R1B ELISA Kits PPP2R1B Proteins
PPP2R3A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B'', alpha): PPP2R3A antibodies PPP2R3A ELISA Kits  
PPP2R3C (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B'', gamma): PPP2R3C antibodies PPP2R3C ELISA Kits PPP2R3C Proteins
PPP2R5A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', alpha): PPP2R5A antibodies   PPP2R5A Proteins
PPP2R5B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', beta): PPP2R5B antibodies   PPP2R5B Proteins
PPP2R5D (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', delta): PPP2R5D antibodies   PPP2R5D Proteins
PPP2R5E (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', epsilon Isoform): PPP2R5E antibodies PPP2R5E ELISA Kits PPP2R5E Proteins
PPP2CA - Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', gamma: PPP2CA antibodies   PPP2CA Proteins
PPP2R2B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B, beta): PPP2R2B antibodies   PPP2R2B Proteins
PPP2R2C (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B, gamma): PPP2R2C antibodies   PPP2R2C Proteins
PPP2R3B (Protein Phosphatase 2A 48 KDa Regulatory Subunit): PPP2R3B antibodies   PPP2R3B Proteins

Others

HBXIP (Hepatitis B Virus X-Interacting Protein):

This gene encodes a protein that specifically complexes with the C-terminus of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx). The function of this protein is to negatively regulate HBx activity and thus to alter the replication life cycle of the virus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

LAMTOR2 (Late Endosomal/lysosomal Adaptor, MAPK and MTOR Activator 2):

The product of this gene is highly conserved with a mouse protein associated with the cytoplasmic face of late endosomes and lysosomes. The mouse protein interacts with MAPK scaffold protein 1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In humans, a mutation in this gene has been associated with a primary immunodeficiency syndrome, and suggests a role for this protein in...   More...
Antigens in this category:
MAPKSP1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1 Interacting Protein 1): MAPKSP1 antibodies MAPKSP1 ELISA Kits MAPKSP1 Proteins
PITRM1 - Pitrilysin Metallepetidase 1: PITRM1 antibodies   PITRM1 Proteins
PPP1R2 (Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory (Inhibitor) Subunit 2): PPP1R2 antibodies PPP1R2 ELISA Kits