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we have identified a mutation in PNKP, leading to a phenotype of microcephaly with primordial dwarfism.
XRCC1 (show XRCC1 Proteins) and PNKP interact via a high-affinity phosphorylation-dependent interaction site in XRCC1 (show XRCC1 Proteins) and a forkhead-associated domain in PNKP. Data suggest a second PNKP interaction site in XRCC1 (show XRCC1 Proteins) that binds PNKP with lower affinity and independently of XRCC1 (show XRCC1 Proteins) phosphorylation. (XRCC1 (show XRCC1 Proteins) = X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 (show XRCC1 Proteins); PNKP = polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase)
In a recombinant PNKP-XRCC4 (show XRCC4 Proteins)-LigIV complex, stable binding of PNKP requires XRCC4 (show XRCC4 Proteins) phosphorylation. Only one PNKP protomer binds per XRCC4 (show XRCC4 Proteins) dimer. Both the PNKP FHA (show CRY2 Proteins) and catalytic domains contact the XRCC4 (show XRCC4 Proteins) coiled-coil and LigIV BRCT repeats. A surface on the PNKP phosphatase domain may contact XRCC4 (show XRCC4 Proteins)-LigIV. A mutation on this surface (E326K) impairs PNKP recruitment to damaged DNA and causes microcephaly with seizures.
Mutations in TDP1 and APTX have been linked to Spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1) and Ataxia-ocular motor apraxia 1 (AOA1), respectively, while mutations in PNKP are considered to be responsible for Microcephaly with seizures (MCSZ) and Ataxia-ocular motor apraxia 4 (AOA4).
the role for PNKP in maintaining brain function and how perturbation in its activity can account for the varied pathology of neurodegeneration or microcephaly present in microcephaly with seizures and ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 4 respectively.
In 11 Portuguese patients, PNKP mutations cause ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 4.
Here we report that purified wild-type (WT) ATXN3 (show ATXN3 Proteins) stimulates, and by contrast the mutant form specifically inhibits, PNKP's 3' phosphatase activity in vitro. ATXN3 (show ATXN3 Proteins)-deficient cells also show decreased PNKP activity
We now report that the mutant ATXN3 (show ATXN3 Proteins) protein interacts with and inactivates PNKP (polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase), an essential DNA strand break repair enzyme
We identified homozygous or compound-heterozygous PNKP mutations in eight of the nine Portuguese families we studied, suggesting that, in Portugal, mutations in PNKP are the most frequent cause of ataxia with oculomotor apraxia.
we show that modest inhibition of PNKP in a PTEN knockout background enhances cellular radiosensitivity, suggesting that such a "synthetic sickness" approach involving the combination of PNKP inhibition with radiotherapy
Repair independent of the well documented XRCC1 (show XRCC1 Proteins)-PNKP interaction was studied. XRCC1 (show XRCC1 Proteins) can mediate repair of strand breaks without PNKP binding.
The work indicates that the phosphatase domain of Pnkp binds 3'-phosphorylated single-stranded DNAs in a manner that is highly dependent on the presence of the 3'-phosphate.
Directed postnatal neural inactivation of PNKP affected specific subpopulations including oligodendrocytes, indicating a broad requirement for genome maintenance, both during and after neurogenesis.
Structure of dsDNA bound to PNK 5'-kinase domain reveals DNA bending facilitating recognition of DNA ends in the context of single-strand/double-strand breaks, suggesting close functional cooperation in between the kinase/phosphatase active sites.
This locus represents a gene involved in DNA repair. In response to ionizing radiation or oxidative damage, the protein encoded by this locus catalyzes 5' phosphorylation and 3' dephosphorylation of nucleic acids. Mutations at this locus have been associated with microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay.
, Homo sapiens polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase (PNKP)
, bifunctional polynucleotide phosphatase/kinase
, polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase
, polynucleotide kinase-3'-phosphatase