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Apoptosis

Programmed cell death or apoptosis is an important physiological process in multicellular organisms. The equilibrium between cell growth and division and the rate at which cells undergo cell death allows for dynamic adjustment of the cell number depending on internal or external parameters. For example, during the development of the vertebrate nervous system about half of the cells undergo apoptosis shortly after they have been formed. In an adult organism, this equilibrium is essential to maintain for example the size and function of organs and tissues. Dysregulation of this equilibrium oftentimes leads to cancer. Unlike necrosis which causes a potentially damaging inflammatory response after affected cells burst, apoptosis unfolds in a very organized way: the cell shrinks and condenses while the internal structures are disassembled and the DNA is fragmented. The dying cell is then rapidly phagocytosed by neighboring cells or macrophages.

At the core of the apoptotic process are caspases, a family of cysteine proteases. They are produced as pro-caspases which are rendered active subsequently to cleavage by other caspases. This caspase cascade is triggered when initiator procaspases (e.g. procaspases 8, 9, 10) are aggregated with the help of adaptor proteins, thus facilitating mutual activation due to low protease activity or conformational changes of the procaspases. The activated caspases are then free to activate effector caspases (e.g. caspases 3, 6, and 7) and promote apoptosis. Their effect is further regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins (e.g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) and IAPs (inhibitors of apoptosis, e.g. BIRC1, XIAP).

Apoptotic processes follow several pathways. Extrinsic death receptor pathways are induced through ligands that bind to a family of death receptor proteins (e.g. the FAS and TRAIL receptors) containing a cytoplasmic death domain. The intrinsic pathway is engaged in response to DNA damage or mitochondrial stress and is particularly relevant in cancer. Besides these canonical apoptotic pathways there are also caspase independent pathways, triggered e.g. by granzyme B and A. These caspase independent pathways are thought to have evolved in response to viruses that inhibit caspases.

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Caspases

CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   More...

CASP3 - Caspase 3

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a...

CASP8 - Caspase 8

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the...
Antigens in this category:
CASP2 - Caspase 2: CASP2 antibodies CASP2 ELISA Kits CASP2 Proteins
CASP4 - Caspase 4: CASP4 antibodies CASP4 ELISA Kits CASP4 Proteins
CASP6 - Caspase 6: CASP6 antibodies CASP6 ELISA Kits CASP6 Proteins
CASP7 - Caspase 7: CASP7 antibodies CASP7 ELISA Kits CASP7 Proteins
CASP10 - Caspase 10: CASP10 antibodies CASP10 ELISA Kits CASP10 Proteins
CASP12 - Caspase 12: CASP12 antibodies CASP12 ELISA Kits  

Mitochondrial

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   More...

BCL2L1 (BCL2-Like 1):

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL-2 protein family. BCL-2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. The proteins encoded by this gene are located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, and have been shown to regulate outer mitochondrial membrane channel (VDAC) opening. VDAC...   More...
Antigens in this category:
BAK1 (BCL2-Antagonist/killer 1): BAK1 antibodies BAK1 ELISA Kits BAK1 Proteins
BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death): BAD antibodies BAD ELISA Kits BAD Proteins
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX antibodies BAX ELISA Kits BAX Proteins
BID (BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist): BID antibodies BID ELISA Kits BID Proteins
CYCS - Cytochrome C: CYCS antibodies CYCS ELISA Kits CYCS Proteins
DIABLO (Second Mitochondria-Derived Activator of Caspase): DIABLO antibodies DIABLO ELISA Kits DIABLO Proteins

Inhibitor of Apoptosis

BIRC2 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of proteins that inhibits apoptosis by binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2, probably by interfering with activation of ICE-like proteases. This encoded protein inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants...   More...

NAIP (NLR Family, Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein):

This gene is part of a 500 kb inverted duplication on chromosome 5q13. This duplicated region contains at least four genes and repetitive elements...

XIAP (X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis):

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of apoptotic suppressor proteins. Members of this family share a conserved motif termed,...
Antigens in this category:
BIRC3 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 3): BIRC3 antibodies BIRC3 ELISA Kits BIRC3 Proteins
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 antibodies BIRC5 ELISA Kits BIRC5 Proteins
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1): EPR1 antibodies    

Receptor

FASL (Fas Ligand (TNF Superfamily, Member 6)):

The protein encoded by this gene is the ligand for FAS. Both are transmembrane proteins. Interaction of FAS with this ligand is critical in...

TNFSF12 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 12):

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This protein is a ligand for the...

TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly...

TNFRSF1B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1B):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This protein and TNF-receptor 1 form a heterocomplex that mediates...
Antigens in this category:
CRADD (CASP2 and RIPK1 Domain Containing Adaptor with Death Domain): CRADD antibodies CRADD ELISA Kits CRADD Proteins
CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulator): CFLAR antibodies CFLAR ELISA Kits CFLAR Proteins
CYLD (Cylindromatosis (Turban Tumor Syndrome)): CYLD antibodies CYLD ELISA Kits CYLD Proteins
DR4 (Drought-Repressed 4 Protein): DR4 antibodies    
FAS (Fas (TNF Receptor Superfamily, Member 6)): FAS antibodies FAS ELISA Kits FAS Proteins
FADD (Fas (TNFRSF6)-Associated Via Death Domain): FADD antibodies FADD ELISA Kits FADD Proteins
RIPK1 (Receptor (TNFRSF)-Interacting serine-threonine Kinase 1): RIPK1 antibodies RIPK1 ELISA Kits RIPK1 Proteins
TRAF1 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1): TRAF1 antibodies TRAF1 ELISA Kits TRAF1 Proteins
TRAF2 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2): TRAF2 antibodies TRAF2 ELISA Kits TRAF2 Proteins
TRAF3 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3): TRAF3 antibodies TRAF3 ELISA Kits TRAF3 Proteins
TRAF5 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 5): TRAF5 antibodies TRAF5 ELISA Kits TRAF5 Proteins
TRADD (TNFRSF1A-Associated Via Death Domain): TRADD antibodies TRADD ELISA Kits TRADD Proteins
TNFSF10 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 10): TNFSF10 antibodies TNFSF10 ELISA Kits TNFSF10 Proteins
TNFRSF10A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10a): TNFRSF10A antibodies TNFRSF10A ELISA Kits TNFRSF10A Proteins
TNFRSF10B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10b): TNFRSF10B antibodies TNFRSF10B ELISA Kits TNFRSF10B Proteins
TNFRSF10C (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10c, Decoy Without An Intracellular Domain): TNFRSF10C antibodies TNFRSF10C ELISA Kits TNFRSF10C Proteins
TNFRSF10D (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10d, Decoy with Truncated Death Domain): TNFRSF10D antibodies TNFRSF10D ELISA Kits TNFRSF10D Proteins
TNFRSF12A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 12A): TNFRSF12A antibodies TNFRSF12A ELISA Kits TNFRSF12A Proteins
TNFRSF1A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1A): TNFRSF1A antibodies TNFRSF1A ELISA Kits TNFRSF1A Proteins
TNFRSF25 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 25): TNFRSF25 antibodies TNFRSF25 ELISA Kits TNFRSF25 Proteins

Cytoplasmatic

YWHAQ (tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, theta Polypeptide):

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This...

YWHAZ (tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, zeta Polypeptide):

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This...
Antigens in this category:
APAF1 (Apoptotic Peptidase Activating Factor 1): APAF1 antibodies APAF1 ELISA Kits APAF1 Proteins

Endoplasmatic Reticulum

CAPNL1 (Calpain 1, Large Subunit):

The calpains, calcium-activated neutral proteases, are nonlysosomal, intracellular cysteine proteases. The mammalian calpains include ubiquitous, stomach-specific, and muscle-specific proteins. The ubiquitous enzymes consist of heterodimers with distinct large, catalytic subunits associated with a common small, regulatory subunit. This gene encodes the large subunit of the ubiquitous enzyme,...   More...

TREX1 (three Prime Repair Exonuclease 1):

This gene encodes a nuclear protein with 3' exonuclease activity. The encoded protein may play a role in DNA repair and serve as a proofreading function for DNA polymerase. Mutations in this gene result in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, chilblain lupus, Cree encephalitis, and other diseases of the immune system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep...   More...

CAPN2 (Calpain 2, (M/II) Large Subunit):

The calpains, calcium-activated neutral proteases, are nonlysosomal, intracellular cysteine proteases. The mammalian calpains include ubiquitous,...

CAPNS1 - Calpain S1

Calpains are a ubiquitous, well-conserved family of calcium-dependent, cysteine proteases. Calpain families have been implicated in...
Antigens in this category:
NME1 (Non-Metastatic Cells 1, Protein (NM23A) Expressed in): NME1 antibodies NME1 ELISA Kits NME1 Proteins
SET (SET Nuclear Oncogene): SET antibodies SET ELISA Kits  

Granzyme

Gzmb - GZMB

Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein encoded by this gene is crucial for the rapid induction of...   More...
Antigens in this category:
GZMA (Granzyme A (Granzyme 1, Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated serine Esterase 3)): GZMA antibodies GZMA ELISA Kits GZMA Proteins
PRF1 - Perforin 1: PRF1 antibodies PRF1 ELISA Kits PRF1 Proteins

Nuclear

PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1):

This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery...   More...

LMNA - Lamin A/C

The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family of proteins make...

LMNB1 - Lamin B1

The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family of proteins make...
Antigens in this category:
AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1): AIFM1 antibodies AIFM1 ELISA Kits AIFM1 Proteins
ENDOG - Endonuclease G: ENDOG antibodies ENDOG ELISA Kits ENDOG Proteins
DFFA (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 45kDa, alpha Polypeptide): DFFA antibodies DFFA ELISA Kits DFFA Proteins
DFFB (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 40kDa, beta Polypeptide (Caspase-Activated DNase)): DFFB antibodies DFFB ELISA Kits DFFB Proteins
LMNB2 - Lamin B2: LMNB2 antibodies LMNB2 ELISA Kits LMNB2 Proteins
CYFIP2 (Cytoplasmic FMR1 Interacting Protein 2): CYFIP2 antibodies   CYFIP2 Proteins

DNA damage

ABL1 (C-Abl Oncogene 1, Non-Receptor tyrosine Kinase):

MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene...

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated):

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that...
Antigens in this category:
CHEK1 (Checkpoint Kinase 1): CHEK1 antibodies CHEK1 ELISA Kits CHEK1 Proteins
CHEK2 - Checkpoint Kinase 2: CHEK2 antibodies CHEK2 ELISA Kits CHEK2 Proteins
CCNA1 - Cyclin A1: CCNA1 antibodies CCNA1 ELISA Kits CCNA1 Proteins
TRIM29 (Tripartite Motif Containing 29): TRIM29 antibodies TRIM29 ELISA Kits TRIM29 Proteins

Apoptosis Markers

ANXA5 - Annexin V

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins some of which have been implicated in membrane-related events along exocytotic and endocytotic pathways. Annexin 5 is a phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C inhibitory protein with calcium channel activity and a potential role in cellular signal transduction, inflammation, growth...   More...

APOC1 (Apolipoprotein C-I):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C1 family. This gene is expressed primarily in the liver, and it is activated...

KRT18 (Keratin 18):

KRT18 encodes the type I intermediate filament chain keratin 18. Keratin 18, together with its filament partner keratin 8, are perhaps the most...
Antigens in this category:
AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1): AIFM1 antibodies AIFM1 ELISA Kits AIFM1 Proteins
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX antibodies BAX ELISA Kits BAX Proteins
BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2): BCL2 antibodies BCL2 ELISA Kits BCL2 Proteins
CASP1 - Caspase 1: CASP1 antibodies CASP1 ELISA Kits CASP1 Proteins
CASP1 - Caspase 1, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (Interleukin 1, Beta, Convertase): CASP1 antibodies CASP1 ELISA Kits  
CASP3 - Caspase 3: CASP3 antibodies CASP3 ELISA Kits CASP3 Proteins
FAS (Fas (TNF Receptor Superfamily, Member 6)): FAS antibodies FAS ELISA Kits FAS Proteins
FASL (Fas Ligand (TNF Superfamily, Member 6)): FASL antibodies FASL ELISA Kits FASL Proteins
CLU - Clusterin: CLU antibodies CLU ELISA Kits CLU Proteins
ITGAM - CD11b: ITGAM antibodies ITGAM ELISA Kits ITGAM Proteins
MAPK1 - ERK2: MAPK1 antibodies MAPK1 ELISA Kits MAPK1 Proteins
TP53 - p53: TP53 antibodies TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteins
PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1): PARP1 antibodies PARP1 ELISA Kits PARP1 Proteins
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 antibodies BIRC5 ELISA Kits BIRC5 Proteins
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1): EPR1 antibodies